ROMDAS Manual

September 15, 2017 | Pengarang: kumarnram | Kategori: Surveying, Surface Roughness, Calibration, Computer Keyboard, Digital Camera
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Descripción: Manual for operation of the vehicle used to measure roughness....

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ROMDAS User’s Guide June 2014

ROMDAS

COPYRIGHT This report is Copyright  2014 Data Collection Ltd. All rights reserved. Brief extracts may be made from this report for technical purposes as long as they are referenced. Although this report is believed to be correct at the time of publication, Data Collection Ltd., its employees or agents involved in the preparation and publication of the report do not accept any contractual, tortious or other form of liability for its contents or any consequences arising from its use. People using the information contained in the report should apply, and rely upon, their own skill and judgement to a particular issue which they are considering.

Quality Assurance Statement File: Prepared by: E001 P.K. Hunter Report Name: Reviewed by: ROMDAS User’s Guide Raj Mallela Document Version: Approved for issue by: 3.1 P.K. Hunter Software Version: 2.4.6.0 Date of Issue: Project manager: June 2014 P.K. Hunter File Name: Z:\Files\E - ROMDAS Documentation\001 - ROMDAS Data Collection Manual\Rom-

win\In Progress\14-02-03 ROMDAS Windows version manual.docx

Data Collection Ltd. P.O. Box 348 Motueka, 7143 NEW ZEALAND Phone: +64-9-827-7703 Fax: +64-9-827-7704 [email protected] www.ROMDAS.com

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REVISIONS

Revision

Date

Section/Page

Description

1.2

28/01/04

File Formats, GPS Pathfinder XRS, Sony TRV70, Video Logging,

1.3

14/03/04

Laser Profilometer

1.4

19/04/04

General updates to ROMWIN

1.5

14/06/04

Change Chap 16 to relevant chapters. General Update

1.6

14/8/04

Fixes from Proof reading

1.7

1/12/04

More detail in Laser Annex and change from Trimble Quickplan to Planning Software

1.8

1/12/05

TPL Mounting, GEO XT setup, VX2000 Setup, PIC Video v3 setup

1.9

15/08/06

New Postcode, Pathfinder Tools Update, PathFinder Pro GPS, Laser Profilometer, RGR Camera

2.0

28/03/07

RGR Camera, Laser Bounce and Elevation test updates

2.1

10/04/07

Add GARMIN MAP60, take out obsolete GPS products setup from Appendix

2.11

16/05/07

2.2

15/10/07

Section 7

Appendix Appendix B Appendix D 2.3

Added Keyboard rating features- Text Comments, Predefined Comments, Group Distance Trigger Rating Keyboards setup with new MacroWorks II software BI Hook and Spring TPL v2 ROMDAS CD screenshots, Interface Versions, GPS 18

2.4

5/05/08

2.5

12/12/08

Updated menu system.

05/06/09

TPL Processing Changes

29/09/09

Added LRMS and Geometry chapters

2.6

10 Video Surveys, Appendix E

Video Logging update Annual Maintenance Subscription, EULA update Pro XRT and GPS setup changes (Pro XRS removed) Trimble Planning Software update

2.7

Active Hard drive Protection, GLONASS, Real-time Correction Datums, MERLIN update, Glossary and Index

2.8

LCMS, SPS461 GPS, Multiple Camera System, Fly2, Macroworks III, File Structures updated, Appendix G Laser Safety

2.9

30/10/12

Appendix E Appendix F

GigE Camera Update - remove Firewire cameras to “Previously Used Video” Remove TSIP GPS to “Previously Used GPS Receivers” Change IP address of TPL Warnings for HR-DMI is for sealed roads only

2.10

LCMS Crack Depth, Curb and Drop Off, LCMS Processing Check, LCMS Sensor angle Updated for Geometry unit changes.

3.0

New Interface, Laser TPL, ROMDAS Laser Profiler, F2/F3 to start Odometer Function

3.1

LCMS Ravelling, Concrete joints, Lane Width

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CONTENTS COPYRIGHT ............................................................................................................................ I REVISIONS .............................................................................................................................. I CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................. I 1.

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 2 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 2 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 2 Components................................................................................................................................... 3 Vehicles ......................................................................................................................................... 3

Types of Data Collected ................................................................................................................ 4 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Roughness – Response Meter ........................................................................................................ 4 Roughness – Laser Profilometer ................................................................................................... 4 Visual Condition and Inventory .................................................................................................... 4 Rut Depth ...................................................................................................................................... 4 Video Recording............................................................................................................................ 5 GPS Positions ............................................................................................................................... 5 Travel Time ................................................................................................................................... 5 Traffic Volume .............................................................................................................................. 5 Digital Photographs ...................................................................................................................... 5

ROMDAS Versions ...................................................................................................................... 6 Software Platforms ........................................................................................................................ 6 Hardware Interfaces ..................................................................................................................... 6

What Needs to be Done to Start Surveying? ................................................................................. 6 Read the Warranty and Software Licence ..................................................................................... 6 Overview of Process...................................................................................................................... 6 Install the Software ....................................................................................................................... 7 Install and Test the Hardware....................................................................................................... 7 Calibrate the Instruments .............................................................................................................. 7 Plan and Prepare for the Survey ................................................................................................... 7 Do the Survey ................................................................................................................................ 8 Data Processing ............................................................................................................................ 8

2.

INSTALLING AND RUNNING ROMDAS .................................................................... 10 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 10 Protection .................................................................................................................................... 10

Annual Maintenance Subscription .............................................................................................. 10 ROMDAS CD ............................................................................................................................. 10 Starting the ROMDAS CD .......................................................................................................... 10 ROMDAS Software ..................................................................................................................... 11

Installing ROMDAS.................................................................................................................... 11 Default Folder ............................................................................................................................. 11

Updating ROMDAS .................................................................................................................... 12 Windows Settings ....................................................................................................................... 12 Power Saving Options and Screen Savers .................................................................................. 12 Windows Performance Options................................................................................................... 13 Disk Defragmentation ................................................................................................................. 13 © Data Collection Ltd. - 1/07/2014 9:16:00 a.m.

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Anti Virus Software ..................................................................................................................... 13 Active hard drive Protection ....................................................................................................... 13

Evaluating and Registering ROMDAS ....................................................................................... 14 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 14 Evaluation Version ..................................................................................................................... 14 ROMDAS Office Version ............................................................................................................ 14 ROMDAS Registered Version ..................................................................................................... 15 Changing the Registration Key ................................................................................................... 16

Running ROMDAS .................................................................................................................... 17 Menu Options.............................................................................................................................. 17 Navigation................................................................................................................................... 17 Passwords ................................................................................................................................... 17 Test Mode.................................................................................................................................... 18

3.

INSTALLING AND TESTING THE SURVEY HARDWARE ........................................ 20 Introduction................................................................................................................................. 20 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 20

Installing the Odometer Sensor................................................................................................... 20 Types of Sensors.......................................................................................................................... 20 Installation Instructions .............................................................................................................. 21

Connecting the Power ................................................................................................................. 21 Options ........................................................................................................................................ 21 Power Cable ............................................................................................................................... 22 Power Distribution Box .............................................................................................................. 22

Installing the Hardware Interface ............................................................................................... 23 Components ................................................................................................................................ 23 Positioning the Interface ............................................................................................................. 23 Connecting the Cables ................................................................................................................ 24

Installing the Transverse Profile Logger .................................................................................... 24 Instructions ................................................................................................................................. 24 Components ................................................................................................................................ 24

Installing the Video System ........................................................................................................ 24 Instructions ................................................................................................................................. 24 Components ................................................................................................................................ 24

Installing GPS Receivers ............................................................................................................ 25 Instructions ................................................................................................................................. 25 Components ................................................................................................................................ 25 Positioning the GPS Unit ............................................................................................................ 25 Activating GPS Measurements.................................................................................................... 25

Installing the Laser Profilometer ................................................................................................ 25 Instructions ................................................................................................................................. 25 Components ................................................................................................................................ 25 Positioning the Laser .................................................................................................................. 25 Installing the Laser ..................................................................................................................... 25

Digital Cameras .......................................................................................................................... 26 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 26 Activating Digital Camera Photos .............................................................................................. 26 Using Digital Cameras in Surveys .............................................................................................. 27

Installing Additional Communication Ports ............................................................................... 27 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 27

Setting Communication Parameters............................................................................................ 28 Assigning COM Ports ................................................................................................................. 28

Testing the Instruments............................................................................................................... 29 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 29 Test Hardware Interface ............................................................................................................. 29 Test GPS ..................................................................................................................................... 29

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Test TPL ...................................................................................................................................... 30 Test Laser Surveyor .................................................................................................................... 31 Test Geometry ............................................................................................................................. 31 Test TPL-LRMS ........................................................................................................................... 32 Test Laser Profilometer .............................................................................................................. 32

4.

PRINCIPLES OF ROAD MEASUREMENT ................................................................. 33 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 33 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 33 Terminology ................................................................................................................................ 33

Location Reference Points .......................................................................................................... 33 Using LRPs ................................................................................................................................. 33 Implications of Odometer Error.................................................................................................. 34 Importance of LRP Resets ........................................................................................................... 35

Distance Measurement Accuracy ................................................................................................ 35 Measurements ............................................................................................................................. 35

Visual Keyboard Rating .............................................................................................................. 36 Principles .................................................................................................................................... 36 Types of Events ........................................................................................................................... 36 Assigning Events ......................................................................................................................... 36 Rating Keyboards........................................................................................................................ 37

Surveying Adjacent Sections ...................................................................................................... 37 The Problem ................................................................................................................................ 37

Programming a Survey ................................................................................................................ 38 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 38

5.

CALIBRATING THE INSTRUMENTS ......................................................................... 39 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 39 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 39

Odometer Calibration .................................................................................................................. 39 Frequency ................................................................................................................................... 39 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 39 Locating and Marking the Calibration Section ........................................................................... 39 Calibration .................................................................................................................................. 40 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 41 For a discussion of the statistical basis for the above calculations please see Appendix B (Installing and Calibrating Roughness Meters). ......................................................................... 41 Entering Results to Software ....................................................................................................... 41

Roughness Meter Calibration ...................................................................................................... 42 Frequency ................................................................................................................................... 42 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 42 Calibration .................................................................................................................................. 42 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 43 Roughness Calibration Equations............................................................................................... 44 Defining Coefficients in ROMDAS .............................................................................................. 44 Video Display Roughness Coefficients ........................................................................................ 45

Laser Profilometer Calibration .................................................................................................... 45 Frequency ................................................................................................................................... 45 Calibration .................................................................................................................................. 45

Transverse Profile Logger Calibration ........................................................................................ 46 Frequency ................................................................................................................................... 46 Equipment Required .................................................................................................................... 46 Calibration .................................................................................................................................. 46 Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 47

6.

PLANNING AND PREPARING FOR A SURVEY ........................................................ 48 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 48 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 48

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Default Survey Settings .............................................................................................................. 48 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 48

Importing LRP Data ................................................................................................................... 48 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 48

Reversing LRP Files ................................................................................................................... 48 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 48 Procedure ................................................................................................................................... 49

Creating Survey Routes .............................................................................................................. 49 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 49

Pre-Defining LRP Entries ........................................................................................................... 49 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 49 Defining ...................................................................................................................................... 49 Customising ................................................................................................................................ 50

Define Survey ID’s ..................................................................................................................... 50 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 50

Start the Survey........................................................................................................................... 51 Defining Survey Data.................................................................................................................. 51

End the Survey............................................................................................................................ 52 7.

VISUAL KEYBOARD RATING SURVEYS ................................................................. 54 Introduction................................................................................................................................. 54 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 54 Operational Considerations........................................................................................................ 54 Types of Events ........................................................................................................................... 55

Defining Keyboard Events ......................................................................................................... 56 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 56 Key Options................................................................................................................................. 56 Point and Continuous Events ...................................................................................................... 57 Switch Events .............................................................................................................................. 57 Settings ........................................................................................................................................ 58 Moving Traffic Count Survey Events .......................................................................................... 58 Laser Distance Measurement...................................................................................................... 58 Laser Surveyor ............................................................................................................................ 59 Special Features ......................................................................................................................... 59

Keycode Setup Options .............................................................................................................. 60 Keycode Setup Options ............................................................................................................... 60

Executing the Survey .................................................................................................................. 61 Starting the Survey ...................................................................................................................... 61 Preliminary Keycodes ................................................................................................................. 61 Group Distance Trigger .............................................................................................................. 62 During the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 62 Ending the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 63 Example of Data ......................................................................................................................... 63

Digital Photographs .................................................................................................................... 63 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 63 Setting Up the Camera ................................................................................................................ 63 Setting Up the Keyboard Event ................................................................................................... 64 During the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 64 Example of Output ...................................................................................................................... 64

Text Comments........................................................................................................................... 65 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 65 Setting Up for Text Comments Recording ................................................................................... 65 Setting Up Pre-Defined Keycodes............................................................................................... 66 During the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 66 Setting Up the Keyboard Event ................................................................................................... 68

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LOCATION REFERENCE POINT SURVEYS ............................................................ 70 © Data Collection Ltd.

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Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 70 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 70 Establishing LRPs ....................................................................................................................... 70 LRP Records ............................................................................................................................... 70

LRP Setup Options...................................................................................................................... 71 LRP Setup Options ...................................................................................................................... 71

Executing the Survey .................................................................................................................. 72 Starting the Survey ...................................................................................................................... 72 During the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 72 Using Predefined LRP’s.............................................................................................................. 73 Ending the Survey: ...................................................................................................................... 74 Example of Data: ........................................................................................................................ 74 Continuing Previous Surveys: ..................................................................................................... 74

Digital Photographs..................................................................................................................... 74 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 74 Setting Up the Camera ................................................................................................................ 74 Setup............................................................................................................................................ 74 During the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 75 Example of Output ...................................................................................................................... 75

9.

ROUGHNESS SURVEYS WITH BUMP INTEGRATORS ........................................... 76 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 76 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 76 Resolution of BI Measurements .................................................................................................. 76

Roughness Survey Setup Options ............................................................................................... 76 Roughness Survey Setup Options ................................................................................................ 76

Executing the Survey .................................................................................................................. 78 Starting the Survey ...................................................................................................................... 78 During the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 78 Ending the Survey ....................................................................................................................... 79 Example of Data ......................................................................................................................... 79

Roughness Exclusion .................................................................................................................. 79 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 79 Roughness Exclude Processing Options ..................................................................................... 79

10.

VIDEO SURVEYS ...................................................................................................... 80 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 80 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 80

Video Survey Setup Options ....................................................................................................... 80 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 80 Device Connection ...................................................................................................................... 80 PGR Video Survey Setup Options ............................................................................................... 81 DV Video Survey Setup Options .................................................................................................. 81 Video Codec ................................................................................................................................ 83 Overlay........................................................................................................................................ 83

Hardware Settings ....................................................................................................................... 83 Camera Settings .......................................................................................................................... 83

Executing Video Surveys ............................................................................................................ 84 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 84 Roughness Display ...................................................................................................................... 84

Processing Digitising Videos ...................................................................................................... 85 Digitising Options ....................................................................................................................... 85

11.

GPS SURVEYS .......................................................................................................... 86 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 86 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 86

Principles of GPS Measurements ................................................................................................ 86 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 86 © Data Collection Ltd. - 1/07/2014 9:16:00 a.m.

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Accuracy of Measurements ......................................................................................................... 87 When to Differentially Correct Data .......................................................................................... 87 GPS Altitude ............................................................................................................................... 88

Survey Planning .......................................................................................................................... 89 Objective: .................................................................................................................................... 89

GPS Setup Options ..................................................................................................................... 89 GPS Settings: .............................................................................................................................. 89 Trimble Settings: ......................................................................................................................... 91 GPS Processing Settings: ........................................................................................................... 91

Executing a GPS Survey ............................................................................................................. 92 Starting the Survey ...................................................................................................................... 92 GPS Data Logging ...................................................................................................................... 92

12.

SURVEYS WITH LCMS SCANNING LASER ............................................................. 94 Introduction................................................................................................................................. 94 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 94

Laser Safety ................................................................................................................................ 94 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 94

LCMS Setup ............................................................................................................................... 94 LCMS Laser Sensor Setup on Vehicle ......................................................................................... 94 Frame Grabber Card .................................................................................................................. 95 Frame Grabber Software Setup .................................................................................................. 95 LCMS Controller Connections.................................................................................................... 96 LCMS Settings............................................................................................................................. 97 Analysis Options ......................................................................................................................... 98 Calibration Files ......................................................................................................................... 98 Odometer Calibration with LCMS .............................................................................................. 99

Executing a LCMS Survey ......................................................................................................... 99 Starting the Survey ...................................................................................................................... 99 LCMS Data Logging ................................................................................................................... 99

Data Processing ........................................................................................................................ 100 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 100 Processing ................................................................................................................................. 101

Analysing LCMS Data ............................................................................................................. 102 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 102 Automatic Lane Markings and Curb and DropOff for Lane Width .......................................... 102 Road Roughness ........................................................................................................................ 103 Rut Depth Under a Straight-Edge............................................................................................. 103 Macro-Texture .......................................................................................................................... 104 Cracking ................................................................................................................................... 105 Potholes .................................................................................................................................... 105 Image with Overlay ................................................................................................................... 105 Cleaning of LCMS .................................................................................................................... 106

13.

RUT DEPTH SURVEYS WITH LRMS SCANNING LASER.......................................108 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 108 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 108

Laser Safety .............................................................................................................................. 108 LRMS Setup ............................................................................................................................. 109 LRMS Laser Sensor Setup on Vehicle ....................................................................................... 109 Frame Grabber Card ................................................................................................................ 109 LRMS Controller Connections .................................................................................................. 110 LRMS Settings ........................................................................................................................... 111 Analysis Options ....................................................................................................................... 112 Calibration Files ....................................................................................................................... 112 Frame Grabber Software Setup ................................................................................................ 113 LRMS Test Menu ....................................................................................................................... 113

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Executing a LRMS Survey........................................................................................................ 114 Starting the Survey .................................................................................................................... 114 LRMS Data Logging ................................................................................................................. 114

Data Processing ......................................................................................................................... 115 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 115 Processing ................................................................................................................................. 115

Analysing LRMS Data .............................................................................................................. 115 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 115 Rut Depth Under a Straight-Edge ............................................................................................. 116 Tilt Angle................................................................................................................................... 116 Status Codes .............................................................................................................................. 116

LRMS Calibration Verification and Cleaning .......................................................................... 117 Calibration Verification ............................................................................................................ 117 Cleaning of LRMS ..................................................................................................................... 118

14.

RUT DEPTH SURVEYS WITH TRANSVERSE PROFILE LOGGER ........................ 120 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 120 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 120 Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 120

TPL Setup Options .................................................................................................................... 121 TPL Ethernet Connections ........................................................................................................ 121 TPL Settings .............................................................................................................................. 123 Analysis Options ....................................................................................................................... 124 Error Corrections ..................................................................................................................... 125

Executing a TPL Survey ........................................................................................................... 125 Starting the Survey .................................................................................................................... 125 TPL Data Logging .................................................................................................................... 125

Data Processing ......................................................................................................................... 126 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 126 Processing ................................................................................................................................. 127

Analysing TPL Data.................................................................................................................. 129 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 129 Rut Depth Under a Straight-Edge ............................................................................................. 129 Pseudo-Rut Depths.................................................................................................................... 133

15.

GEOMETRY SURVEYS ........................................................................................... 134 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 134 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 134 Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 134

Geometry Setup Options ........................................................................................................... 135 Geometry IMU Connections ..................................................................................................... 135 Geometry IMU Driver ............................................................................................................... 135 Geometry Settings ..................................................................................................................... 135 Setup.......................................................................................................................................... 136

Executing a Geometry Survey .................................................................................................. 136 Starting the Survey .................................................................................................................... 136 Geometry Data Logging............................................................................................................ 136

Data Processing ......................................................................................................................... 137 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 137 Processing ................................................................................................................................. 137

16.

MOVING TRAFFIC COUNT SURVEYS.................................................................... 140 Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 140 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 140 Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 140 Example of Predictions ............................................................................................................. 141

Adjustment Factors ................................................................................................................... 142 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 142 © Data Collection Ltd. - 1/07/2014 9:16:00 a.m.

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ADT Calibration Factor ........................................................................................................... 142 AADT Adjustment Factor .......................................................................................................... 143 Defining ADT Calibration Factor............................................................................................. 144 Defining AADT Adjustment Factor ........................................................................................... 145

Defining Moving Traffic Count Events and Executing a Survey ............................................. 145 Defining Events ......................................................................................................................... 145 Executing a Survey.................................................................................................................... 145

Setup Options............................................................................................................................ 146 Processing Setup options .......................................................................................................... 146

17.

TRAVEL TIME SURVEYS ........................................................................................148 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 148 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 148

Setup Options............................................................................................................................ 148 Setup Options ............................................................................................................................ 148

Data Processing ........................................................................................................................ 149 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 149

18.

DIGITAL ODOMETER ..............................................................................................150 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 150 Setup ......................................................................................................................................... 150 Using the Odometer .................................................................................................................. 150

19.

SOFTWARE SETUP OPTIONS ................................................................................152 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 152 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 152

Basic Settings............................................................................................................................ 152 Calibrate ................................................................................................................................... 152 Test Instruments ........................................................................................................................ 152 Customise .................................................................................................................................. 152 Default File Directory............................................................................................................... 152 Define Pause Key ...................................................................................................................... 153 Assign Mouse Buttons ............................................................................................................... 153 User Defined Fields .................................................................................................................. 153

Advanced Settings .................................................................................................................... 154 Passwords ................................................................................................................................. 154 Program Options ...................................................................................................................... 154 Digital Photos ........................................................................................................................... 155 Time Settings ............................................................................................................................. 155 Laser Surveyor .......................................................................................................................... 156 Heading Gyroscope .................................................................................................................. 156

20.

FILE MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................158 Introduction............................................................................................................................... 158 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 158

File Locations ........................................................................................................................... 158 Folders ...................................................................................................................................... 158 Data Files ................................................................................................................................. 158 Audio Files ................................................................................................................................ 159

File Structures – Survey Setup and Management Files ............................................................ 159 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 159 Keycode Event........................................................................................................................... 159 Odometer Calibration Factors.................................................................................................. 160 Vehicle Calibration Log ............................................................................................................ 160 LRP Pre-Definition ................................................................................................................... 160 Survey Log ................................................................................................................................ 160 ADT Calibration Factors .......................................................................................................... 161 AADT Adjustment Factors ........................................................................................................ 161

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Laser Elevation Test Header ..................................................................................................... 161 Laser Elevation Test Data ......................................................................................................... 162 Laser Elevation Test Packet Diagnostic Data .......................................................................... 162 Laser Bounce Test ..................................................................................................................... 162

Table Structures – Headers and Raw Data ................................................................................ 163 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 163 Survey Header Table ................................................................................................................. 163 Raw BI Roughness Table .......................................................................................................... 164 GPS Header Table .................................................................................................................... 164 GPS Data Table ........................................................................................................................ 164 Video Header Table .................................................................................................................. 165 Video Data Table ...................................................................................................................... 165 TPL Header Table ..................................................................................................................... 165 TPL Data Table......................................................................................................................... 166 Geometry Header Table ............................................................................................................ 166 Geometry Data Table ................................................................................................................ 167 TPL-LRMS Header Table ......................................................................................................... 167 TPL-LRMS Raw Data Table ..................................................................................................... 168 LCMS Header Table ................................................................................................................. 168 Travel Time Header Table ........................................................................................................ 169 Travel Time Data Table ............................................................................................................ 169

Table Structures – Processed Data ............................................................................................ 170 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 170 Keyboard Rating Table ............................................................................................................. 170 Digital Photo Table................................................................................................................... 170 LRP Table ................................................................................................................................. 170 GPS Processed Data ................................................................................................................. 171 Video Processed Data ............................................................................................................... 171 Roughness Processed Data ....................................................................................................... 172 TPL Processed Data ................................................................................................................. 172 Travel Time Processed Data ..................................................................................................... 173 TPL-LRMS Processed Data ...................................................................................................... 173 Geometry Processed Data......................................................................................................... 174 Laser Profiler Processed Data.................................................................................................. 174 Texture Processed Data (SMTD) .............................................................................................. 175 LCMS Crack Processed Data ................................................................................................... 175 LCMS Pothole Processed Data ................................................................................................. 175 LCMS Texture Processed Data (MPD) ..................................................................................... 176 LCMS Rutting Processed Data ................................................................................................. 176 LCMS Lane Width Processed Data ........................................................................................... 177 LCMS Ravelling Processed Data .............................................................................................. 177 LCMS Concrete Joint Faulting Processed Data ....................................................................... 178 LCMS Roughness Processed Data ............................................................................................ 178

Other Processed Data Files ....................................................................................................... 179 LCMS XML String File ............................................................................................................. 179 LCMS Roughness Profile Output .............................................................................................. 179 LCMS Roughness csv Output .................................................................................................... 179 LCMS Overlay Image File ........................................................................................................ 179 Laser profiler ERD file (Text or Binary) ................................................................................... 180

21.

LICENCE AND WARRANTY .................................................................................... 181 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................... 181 DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................... 181 HARDWARE WARRANTY ........................................................................................................ 181 SOFTWARE LICENCE ............................................................................................................. 181 COPYRIGHT AND RESTRICTIONS ON USE ......................................................................... 182 NO WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................ 182 SUPPORT ................................................................................................................................. 182 LIMITATION OF LIABILITY .................................................................................................... 182 TERMINATION......................................................................................................................... 183

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ENTIRE AGREEMENT ............................................................................................................. 183 WAIVER .................................................................................................................................... 183 LANGUAGE.............................................................................................................................. 183 GOVERNING LAW ................................................................................................................... 183

APPENDIX A: INSTALLING THE SPEED/DISTANCE SENSOR .........................................185 APPENDIX B: INSTALLING AND CALIBRATING BUMP INTEGRATORS...........................193 Components .............................................................................................................................. 194 Installation Overview ................................................................................................................ 195 Mounting Options ..................................................................................................................... 195 BI Hook ..................................................................................................................................... 197 Connecting the Wire ................................................................................................................. 198 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 199 Removing the BI Wire ............................................................................................................... 199 Removing the BI Spindle ........................................................................................................... 199 Removing the BI Spring ............................................................................................................ 200 Installing the BI Spring ............................................................................................................. 201 Install BI Wire ........................................................................................................................... 201 Install in Vehicle ....................................................................................................................... 201 Calibration Requirements ......................................................................................................... 201 International Roughness Index ................................................................................................. 202 Definition .................................................................................................................................. 202 Underlying Model ..................................................................................................................... 203 Algorithm .................................................................................................................................. 203 Calibration Steps ...................................................................................................................... 204 Calibration Section Characteristics .......................................................................................... 204 Number of Sections ................................................................................................................... 204 Profiling Techniques ................................................................................................................. 204 Z-250 Profiling ......................................................................................................................... 205 MERLIN Profiling ..................................................................................................................... 207 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 209 Check the Data.......................................................................................................................... 210 Locating the Program ............................................................................................................... 210 Installing the Software .............................................................................................................. 210 Running An Analysis ................................................................................................................. 210 Files .......................................................................................................................................... 211 Preparing the Vehicle ............................................................................................................... 211 Survey Form.............................................................................................................................. 212 Collecting the Data ................................................................................................................... 212 Establishing the Number of Runs .............................................................................................. 212 Performing the Calculations ..................................................................................................... 213 Analysis of Data ........................................................................................................................ 214 Calibration Equations ............................................................................................................... 214 Determining Coefficients .......................................................................................................... 214 Low Speed Effects ..................................................................................................................... 215

APPENDIX C: INSTALLING AND CALIBRATING THE LASER PROFILOMETER...............217 Laser Profilometer System ........................................................................................................ 218 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 220 Laser DMI Interface Keylock .................................................................................................... 220 Laser Mechanical Shutter ......................................................................................................... 220 Laser Minimum Speed Electrical Interlock............................................................................... 220 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 221 Mounting on Vehicle ................................................................................................................. 221 Cable Connections .................................................................................................................... 226 ROMDAS Data Collector Computer TCP/IP Configuration .................................................... 228 Laser Profilometer Units Configuration ................................................................................... 228 Laser Profilometer DMI Interface Configuration ..................................................................... 230 Profilometer DMI Interface Odometer Direction ..................................................................... 231 ROMDAS Profilometer Test Menus .......................................................................................... 232 x

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ROMDAS Software Profilometer Setup .................................................................................... 233 Calibration Requirements ......................................................................................................... 234 Profilometer Odometer Calibration .......................................................................................... 235 Bounce Test ............................................................................................................................... 236 Elevation and Linearity Test ..................................................................................................... 238 Macrotexture ............................................................................................................................. 242 Testing Ethernet Connections ................................................................................................... 243 Laser Profilometer Fuse ........................................................................................................... 243 Laser Lens ................................................................................................................................. 243 Laser Beam Not Active .............................................................................................................. 244

APPENDIX D: INSTALLING AND CALIBRATING THE TPL ................................................ 245 TPL System................................................................................................................................ 246 TPL Installation ........................................................................................................................ 246 Attaching the TPL to the Vehicle .............................................................................................. 246 TPL Wings ................................................................................................................................. 248 Connections............................................................................................................................... 248 Attaching the TPL to the Vehicle .............................................................................................. 249 Calibration Requirements ......................................................................................................... 251 Distance Calibration ................................................................................................................. 251 Create Datum Level .................................................................................................................. 252 Sensor Numbering ..................................................................................................................... 254 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 255 Testing TPL ............................................................................................................................... 255 Sensor Diagnostics .................................................................................................................... 257 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 257

APPENDIX E: INSTALLING THE VIDEO SYSTEM ............................................................. 258 Video Systems............................................................................................................................ 259 Overlay of Data......................................................................................................................... 259 Components............................................................................................................................... 259 Configuring Cameras ................................................................................................................ 259 Pegasus Compression Codec .................................................................................................... 260 Windows Media Player Classic ................................................................................................ 262 GigE Video Cameras ................................................................................................................ 262 IP Address ................................................................................................................................. 262 Installing GigE Drivers ............................................................................................................. 263 Ethernet Packet Size.................................................................................................................. 264 Connecting The Camera ........................................................................................................... 265 Pavement Video ........................................................................................................................ 267 Installing the Camera Roof ....................................................................................................... 268 Focusing PGR Video Camera ................................................................................................... 268 Survey with PGR Video Cameras ............................................................................................. 268 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 269 Installing the Camera in the External mount Enclosure ........................................................... 270 Testing ....................................................................................................................................... 270 Mounting to the Vehicle ............................................................................................................ 270

APPENDIX F: INSTALLING GPS RECEIVERS ................................................................... 272 Components............................................................................................................................... 273 Installation ................................................................................................................................ 273 Setting up the Receiver .............................................................................................................. 273 Connections............................................................................................................................... 274 Connecting to the receiver through Ethernet ............................................................................ 274 SPS461 Receiver Setup ............................................................................................................. 275 ROMDAS Settings ..................................................................................................................... 276 OMNISTAR Setup ..................................................................................................................... 277 Components............................................................................................................................... 279 Installation ................................................................................................................................ 279 Setting up the Receiver .............................................................................................................. 279 Setting up ROMDAS.................................................................................................................. 282 © Data Collection Ltd. - 1/07/2014 9:16:00 a.m.

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Testing....................................................................................................................................... 282 Components no longer used ...................................................................................................... 282

APPENDIX G: LCMS/LRMS LASER SAFETY .....................................................................285 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 286 Laser Safety Officer (LSO)........................................................................................................ 286 Nominal Hazard Ocular Area (NOHA) .................................................................................... 286 ROMDAS Safety Features......................................................................................................... 286 Establishment of a Laser Controlled Area. ............................................................................... 287 LRMS Laser Output .................................................................................................................. 288 LCMS Laser Output .................................................................................................................. 289

APPENDIX H: PROGRAMMING THE RATING KEYBOARD ...............................................292 Rating Keyboards ..................................................................................................................... 293 USB Rating Keyboards ............................................................................................................. 294 Installing MacroWorks Software .............................................................................................. 294 Installing the Rating Keyboard ................................................................................................. 295 Programming the USB Rating Keyboard .................................................................................. 295

APPENDIX I: QUALITY ASSURANCE FORMS ...................................................................298 INDEX .................................................................................................................................306

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1. Introduction Introduction Overview The "Road Measurement Data Acquisition System" (ROMDAS) has been developed by Data Collection Ltd. (DCL) as a generic system for collecting data on road condition and travel time. It is possible to use ROMDAS for:           

roughness surveys; travel time and congestion surveys; condition rating surveys; inventory surveys; moving traffic surveys; transverse profile/rutting surveys; video log surveys; recording the location of digital photographs; creating voice records which are associated with road attributes; collecting GPS/GNSS data; as a digital trip meter.

ROMDAS uses a computer to store all the data and to interact with the instruments.

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1 Introduction Components The basic ROMDAS system consists of:    

a hardware interface; a digital distance/speed sensor which is spliced into the vehicle speedometer cable or attached to an electronic speedometer; all necessary electrical plugs/sockets and cabling; ROMDAS software.

The optional instruments are used to collect additional data. The Hardware/Laser DMI Interface connects to the distance/speed sensor. During the survey, the Interface monitors both the distance/speed sensor and other devices such as the roughness meter. At the end of the survey the data are processed into Microsoft Access database files. The only permanent fixture in the vehicle is the distance/speed sensor. It is therefore practical to move ROMDAS between vehicles as long as they are fitted with a distance/speed sensor and harness. Since most ROMDAS Systems use a portable computer as the data logger, the computer may also be used for other activities in between surveys. Vehicles ROMDAS can be used in any type of vehicle, from passenger cars through vans to four wheel drives or trucks. The photos below show vehicles used for ROMDAS surveys in New Zealand and Malaysia. The ROMDAS web site at www.ROMDAS.com has additional photographs.

New Zealand

Malaysia

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Types of Data Collected Overview Designed to be a portable and modular system, ROMDAS can be used to collect a range of data. It is common to start off with a basic system and then to enhance it with additional measurement instruments as survey needs become more sophisticated. Roughness – Response Meter A response-type roughness meter can be added to measure road roughness. ROMDAS will convert raw roughness data into calibrated roughnesses through user-supplied equations. If equations are available for different speeds, ROMDAS will apply the appropriate equation given the vehicle speed at the time of the measurement. This removes the constraint of trying to operate the vehicle at a single survey speed under all conditions. If the only requirement is a simple roughness survey, ROMDAS can be run by the driver alone, eliminating the need for an additional operator. A single roughness meter can be used if the vehicle has a rear axle (half-car roughness); one or two roughness meters if independent rear suspension (quarter-car roughness). Roughness – Laser Profilometer The ROMDAS Laser/Accelerometer System is an intelligent transducer specifically intended to measure road surface profile and optionally road texture characteristics. Distance from the surface under test to the transducer is measured by means of an infrared laser beam reflected from the surface onto a sensing element. Visual Condition and Inventory Condition and inventory surveys can be done using the computer keyboard. It is possible to assign any key to an event and these are recorded as point and continuous events. Using a special adapter available from DCL it is possible to connect multiple keyboards to the Laptop computer. This makes it possible to have several observers performing rating at the same time—for example one doing condition and a second inventory. There are also special 20 or 58 key rating keyboards that are ideal for condition surveys. Groups of keys can be assigned to an individual distresses or roadside events. If it is necessary to establish the exact locations of certain attributes—for example km posts or signs—the ROMDAS Laser Surveyor option can be used. This sees a laser range finder with integrated compass and inclinometer used to establish the exact position of the attribute relative to the vehicle. If GPS is being recorded in the survey the geo-coordinates of the attribute can be determined with a high degree of accuracy. Rut Depth A ‘Transverse Profile Logger’ is available which can be used to measure the pavement transverse profile elevations using ultrasonic’s and to establish the rut depth. This instrument stores raw elevation data which are downloaded to the PC after the survey to calculate the rut depth under a user-definable straight edge. The transverse profile distortion is used to estimate potential causes of rutting.

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Video Recording A video camera can be used to record data on the pavement right-of-way or the surface. This is connected to a GigE Ethernet port or Firewire card. Survey chainages and other basic data are recorded to an overlay on the video image. Multiple cameras can be used during the survey, for example to record the right-of-way as well as the roadside areas. GPS Positions When used with a GPS/GNSS receiver, ROMDAS will record the global positioning data at user defined sampling intervals (up to 25 Hz). An IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) can be fitted to estimate the location when there is a loss of satellite lock. Travel Time Travel time and congestion surveys can be conducted using ROMDAS. These will give the travel time, distances travelled and acceleration on a second-by-second basis. The system has been specifically designed to collect data for use in the World Bank’s HDM-4 congestion model. Traffic Volume ROMDAS can be used to perform ‘moving traffic surveys’. These entail recording every vehicle that passes the survey vehicle. The data are used to establish and estimate the AADT. Digital Photographs During ROMDAS surveys data can also be collected using a digital camera. Typically, this consists of photographs of roadside objects such as inventory items or km stones. The frame number corresponding to the image is entered to ROMDAS which associates a chainage with the photograph.

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ROMDAS Versions Software Platforms The original ROMDAS software, developed in the early 1990s was an MS-DOS version. It was superseded in 2002 by a ROMDAS Windows version, which is described in this User’s Guide. All development on ROMDAS for DOS ceased after the introduction of the ROMDAS Windows version. Hardware Interfaces There are several versions of the ROMDAS Hardware Interface:        

Version 6.0 (2007 Onwards) – 66 Hz Version 5.4 (2003 Onwards) Version 5.3 (2002 Onwards) Version 5 (1999-2002) – 5 Hz Version 4 (1998-99) Version 3 (Post-1996) Version 2 (Pre-1996) Version 1 (1988)

The current ROMDAS software version only works with Hardware Version 5.4 and later.

What Needs to be Done to Start Surveying? Read the Warranty and Software Licence Before anything else read the Licence and Warranty details in Chapter 21. If you do not agree to these please return the ROMDAS equipment to DCL for a partial refund. Overview of Process As shown in the following figure, the following steps need to be done:  Install the hardware and software  Calibrate the instruments  Plan and prepare for the survey  Execute the survey  Process the data

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Install ROMDAS hardware in vehicle

Install ROMDAS software on PC

Calibrate odometer

Visual rating?

Define keycode events

Roughness?

Profile roughness test sections

Rut depths?

Calibrate transverse profile logger

Moving traffic survey?

Define vehicle events

Plan and prepare for survey

Road definitions

Calibrate roughness meter

Execute survey

Process and analyse survey data

Output file

Install the Software Install and set up the ROMDAS software. This is described in Chapter 0 Install and Test the Hardware The ROMDAS hardware needs to be installed in the vehicle and tested. This is described in Chapter 3. Calibrate the Instruments The calibration of the various instruments is described in Chapter 5 and the Appendixes to this manual. Plan and Prepare for the Survey This consists of route planning, establishing location reference points, etc. These are discussed in Chapters 4 and 6.

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1 Introduction Do the Survey The different surveys each have different data collection requirements. They are discussed in Chapters 0 through 18 Data Processing The processing of survey data is described in the chapters on executing surveys.

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2 Installing and Running ROMDAS

2. Installing and Running ROMDAS Introduction Protection ROMDAS is copy protected. This sees a unique hardware fingerprint generated by the ROMDAS software based on the name of the registered user and the hardware that it is installed to. This fingerprint is provided to DCL who will then provide a registration key which will ensure continued operation. Without a registration key the software will work for an evaluation period of 30 days after which it will only operate in Office Mode. It is not possible to get around this by resetting the time or date on the machine or any other method. The software can be uninstalled and transferred to another computer, but this requires that a new registration key be issued.

Annual Maintenance Subscription Continued user support and entitlement for ROMDAS software upgrades is done through the ROMDAS Annual Maintenance Subscription (AMS). As well as entitling the user to the current update patches of the software the user will also get many other support entitlements. An invoice for the next year's Annual Maintenance fee will be sent at the anniversary of purchase date. Two or more years Annual Maintenance fee can be purchased at a discount. Refer to the ROMDAS website for current details of the ROMDAS Annual Maintenance Subscription (AMS) .

ROMDAS CD Starting the ROMDAS CD The ROMDAS CD contains software and documentation for the ROMDAS, along with the other ROMDAS products available. Insert the CD and it should automatically start, displaying the following menu:

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If the CD does not start automatically, do the following:    

Start Windows Explorer Locate the drive with the ROMDAS CD Highlight the file MenuEng.exe Double click to start the menu.

ROMDAS Software To locate the ROMDAS software:   

Select ROMDAS Road Measurement Data Acquisition System Select ROMDAS Software Select ROMDAS Data Collection Software

This will start the install.

Installing ROMDAS Default Folder The ROMDAS software is installed by default to the folder c:\ROMDAS. If you would like to use a different folder select the Browse button when the next screen is displayed. Otherwise, select Next to run the install.

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Once installed, a shortcut will be placed on your desktop.

Updating ROMDAS Update Software To update the ROMDAS software with a new version you should uninstall the old software before doing a full reinstall. This is done by locating the Remove Programs icon and then highlighting the ROMDAS program to remove

Windows Settings Power Saving Options and Screen Savers For a real-time data collection system like ROMDAS it is important to insure that no other software is taking processor time or operating system operations occur which could affect real-time performance. The following should be done when using ROMDAS in data collection surveys  All Windows Power saving options and screen savers should be turned off.  Check for programs that start-up automatically and run in the background that could affect performance and can be disabled or turned off e.g. anti-virus software, Skype etc The data collection computer should be keep as “clean” as possible as the more software is installed the more background services will be running that could affect real-time operation.

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Windows Performance Options The ROMDAS software uses Windows background services for the TPL, Video and Laser Profilometer devices. With Windows 2000 and later operating systems, you can increase the performance of ROMDAS while using any of these devices by changing the Processor Scheduling setting from the default “Programs” to the "Background Services"

This option is set under: Control Panel | System | Advanced | Performance Settings | Advanced | | Processor Scheduling.

For better real-time performance the Visual Effects setting can also be changed to Adjust for best performance.

Disk Defragmentation The ROMDAS Video option will generate a lot of disk activity when writing video data. Disk fragmentation will affect the performance of the ROMDAS software. Disk defragmentation should be performed regularly. Anti Virus Software Several of the free anti-virus software programs interfere with some or all of ROMDAS operation (Avast, Kaspersky etc). Generally if it can be avoided we recommend not using anti-virus software on the data collection computer. However Microsoft Security Essentials has been successfully tested with ROMDAS and currently is the only anti-virus software that we can recommend using if a antivirus protection is required. Active hard drive Protection Active hard drive protection refers to technology that is mainly used in laptop computers that detects excess acceleration or vibration and attempts to avoid or reduce mechanical damage to hard disk drives by preparing the disk(s) prior to impact. The software tells the hard disk to unload its heads to prevent them coming in contact with the platter, thus potentially preventing head crash. Laptop vendors have implemented this technology under different names:  

HDAPS, Hard Drive Active Protection System, by Lenovo GraviSense by Acer

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2 Installing and Running ROMDAS   

3D DriveGuard, HP Mobile Data Protection System 3D and ProtectSmart Hard Drive Protection by HP Free Fall Sensor (FFS) by Dell HDD Protection by Toshiba

These utilities will generally interfere with ROMDAS data collection as the vibration of the moving vehicle can shut done the hard disks and prevent ROMDAS from saving the data to file (particularly important with Video Logging option). These utilities need to be turned off when ROMDAS is operating in the vehicle.

Evaluating and Registering ROMDAS Overview The full ROMDAS software is protected with a registration key system so that only the purchased subsystems will work in surveys. However ROMDAS can also be operated in other modes that don’t require registration. The three modes of operation are:  Evaluation Version - all features and subsystems work, expires after 30 days if full registration key is not entered. On expiry ROMDAS will automatically revert to become ROMDAS Office. The 30 day extension will reset if a newer version is installed. The 30 day evaluation period can be extended at DCL’s discretion. Contact DCL to apply for an extension key.  ROMDAS Office Version - no restrictions on use. Everything works except surveys. Can be used for Data processing, survey file setup etc.  ROMDAS Registered Version - restricted to one copy per system and enabled for survey subsystems purchased. Evaluation Version ROMDAS can be evaluated for a period of 30 days before registration is required. During the evaluation period the software is fully functional. However, after this period the software will no longer operate in evaluation mode on the same computer except if you install a later version of ROMDAS in which case another 30 days trial is available. When the software is started in evaluation mode the screen above is shown. After a period of 5 seconds select Start and ROMDAS will continue to load. ROMDAS can be changed to operate in either ROMDAS Office or Registered versions at any time. ROMDAS Office Version The ROMDAS Office version requires no registration key to operate. You are therefore able to install on as many computers as required for data processing, survey file setup etc. After installation the ROMDAS software will operate in Evaluation mode by default. When starting up the software will display the following Registration screen.

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To change to ROMDAS Office select he Office Mode button. The following message will appear informing you that all surveying options will be disabled in the Office version.

Select OK. ROMDAS will now always start in Office mode. The version that ROMDAS is operating in will be shown on the status line (or the About ROMDAS dialog).

ROMDAS Registered Version Once the software has been purchased a registration key will be issued. Enter the name the software is to be registered to in the ROMDAS Registration window shown above (which can also be accessed from About ROMDAS|Registration Status) and select Email Finger Print or Print Finger Print. Both the user name and the fingerprint need to be supplied for the software to be registered. In the example above the fingerprint is EA6D-964E. Send the fingerprint to [email protected] or fax to number in the Information|About ROMDAS menu. E-mail will give the most prompt response.

The Hardware Finger Print is the unique hardware code for the computer that ROMDAS is to be installed to. Each fingerprint is unique to a single computer. The user name and fingerprint is used to generate a unique registration key. This will be provided and should be entered as shown to the right. Once done the Register button is used to complete the process. If successful, the window below right will be shown. If not, please contact [email protected]

NOTE:

If you change the hardware on your computer the registration key may no longer work. It will be necessary to first obtain an uninstall key as described next for moving the software to a new computer, and then obtain a new key once the new hardware is installed.

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Changing the Registration Key The key is only valid for the specific machine hardware configuration so if ROMDAS is to be used on another computer or the hardware is changed, it will be necessary to uninstall the software and obtain a new key. The process is as follows.   

Start ROMDAS Select Information|About ROMDAS|Registration Status Select the Unregister ROMDAS button

ROMDAS will shut down and the following dialog will be shown. Select OK.

To unregister it is necessary to provide a code which verifies that ROMDAS has been removed. An example of this code is shown on the following screen. WRITE THIS CODE DOWN. It is necessary to press all three buttons and then OK to complete the unregistering.

Send this code along with the new hardware fingerprint to DCL at the contacts above and a replacement key will be provided. NOTE:

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If you need to install ROMDAS on to another computer because of hardware failure during a survey and have no way of easily contacting DCL to obtain a new registration key, the software can be installed and run for 30 days on a new/uninstalled computer. This 30 days period should allow you to complete your work in progress.

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Running ROMDAS Menu Options The ROMDAS menu system has the following options:      

File. Surveys, Odometer Surveys and Data Processing options; View. View processed data; Calibrate. Calibration options; Test. Test menus for the various ROMDAS instruments Tools. Define setup options; Help. Information about the software.

Navigation Since ROMDAS is used in a moving vehicle, the system has been designed as much as possible to be operated without needing a mouse. Navigation can be done with standard Windows navigation keys:       

Accelerator Key (Ctrl Key) combination: Ctrl key + letter as shown in menu. E.g. Ctrl-S brings up New Survey dialog. Alt Key combination: Alt key + first letter of menu item. E.g. Alt-F brings up File menu. Up/Down/Left/Right Arrow Keys. Move between menu and submenu items Tab. Move between fields Enter. Select a menu item ESC. Close the menu Function Keys. Assigned to specific tasks

Passwords The Tools|Options menu can be password protected to stop unauthorised access to critical settings. If enabled selecting Tools|Options from the main menu gives the password entry box shown:

The first time ROMDAS is used, the user has direct access to the Tools|Options menus. The password settings are described in Section 0.

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Test Mode The ROMDAS software can be run without being connected to the Interface or being in the vehicle by using the ‘Survey Test Mode’ option. This simulates being connected to Hardware and driving along the road. It is activated by the menu Survey Test Mode under the Test menu as follows.

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3. Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware Introduction Overview There are a number of different components to install before surveys can be done. A basic ROMDAS system, comprised of the hardware interface and roughness meter, can typically be installed in about 2 hours. More complicated systems, such as the video, may take 3-4 hours. In general, less than a day is required to install a full ROMDAS system into a vehicle. It is not necessary to have specialist tools or services to install ROMDAS, although access to a vehicle hoist or work pit is useful for installing the odometer sensor and bump integrator. This chapter covers installing and testing the various ROMDAS instruments. It also includes setting up the system for using with digital cameras and voice recording. Tools Required The following tools are required:      

Multi-meter Sharp knife Pliers Screw Driver Spanners Electric Drill with 20 mm drill bit (for roughness meter)

Installing the Odometer Sensor Types of Sensors The installation requirements for the speed/distance sensor depend upon the type of sensor. Appendix A describes how the appropriate sensor should be selected. The main sensor is the generic fit Proximity Odometer sensor. The Proximity Odometer sensor magnets are affixed to the driveshaft to the inside of the wheel and monitored when the part rotates. Other types of standard speed/distance sensors are also available for use with ROMDAS: 

High Resolution DMI. This is the sensor used when high resolutions are required (see Appendix A). If you have LCMS/LRMS, Laser Profiler, or TPL modules then the HR DMI is the mandatory DMI sensor. This sensor should only be used on sealed roads.



Electronic Speedometer Sensor. This is used in vehicles that have electronic speedometers. It monitors the pulse line and returns a signal for each pulse. This works on most vehicles with the only problems reported with a Nissan utility.

For older vehicles with cable driven speedometers the following could also be used:  Screw-in Transmission Speedometer Cable Sensor. This connects at the junction between the speedometer cable and the transmission. It fits most modern Japanese vehicles and screws directly to

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the transmission. The speedometer cable is then connected to the sensor. It is fast and easy to fit but it does not fit all vehicles. Splice-in Speedometer Cable Sensor. This is spliced into the speedometer cable housing with the existing speedometer cable running through the centre of the sensor.

The standard sensors are illustrated in the following photograph.

Installation Instructions Detailed instructions on installing the sensors are given in Appendix A.

Connecting the Power Options There are two options available for supplying power to ROMDAS:  

Power Cable. This is used when there is only a single hardware interface needs to be powered the cable can be directly connected to the vehicle cigarette lighter socket. Power Distribution Box. The distribution box is used when there are multiple instruments to connect (i.e. GPS, gyroscope, video system, etc.).

The power plug used for the ROMDAS instruments is through a two-pin screw in connector, shown in the next diagram. The pin connections and numbering are as follows. The figure shows the connections when looking at the plug. Positive (+) Negative (-)

+

-

The installation requirements of both are different, as described next.

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Power Cable The ROMDAS power cable1 is illustrated below and the labelled components are as follows:  

Power In. The end of the cable with a cigarette lighter plug connected to it is used to power the ROMDAS unit. A 7 Amp fuse is contained in the cigarette lighter plug. Interface Power. This cable provides power to the ROMDAS hardware interface. It has a screw-in plug.

Power Distribution Box The ROMDAS power distribution box is shown next. It is used when there are multiple instruments that need to be run—typically a video system or a TPL and GPS. The power distribution box provides multiple power points for ROMDAS instruments, each individually fused.

The power distribution box has a battery cable. This should be run through the firewall of the vehicle to the engine compartment and the two circular connectors attached to the positive (RED wire) and negative (BLACK) wire terminals. Care should be taken to ensure that the wires are clear of all moving parts and high-tension leads. The power distribution box should be positioned in the vehicle so that the On-Off switch is readily accessible and the instruments can be easily connected. Double-sided Velcro is supplied to help ensure that the power distribution box is held firmly in place. 1

The Power Cable replaces the ROMDAS Power Switch.

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NOTE: The ROMDAS power distribution box should only be connected to a 12 V vehicle DC electrical system.

The Power Box has re-settable fuses. If the fuse has blown the red button will pop out. It needs to be pushed back in to reset the fuse.

Installing the Hardware Interface Components The following components are required for installing the hardware interface in the vehicle:      

ROMDAS hardware interface Cable ties ROMDAS power cable RS-232 cable Reverse light cable (optional) Adhesive Velcro

Positioning the Interface The interface should be positioned in such a way that:   

The lights on the interface are visible. This allows the operator to confirm that the data are being received. It is protected from collateral damage such as being stepped on; It is within reach of the cables.

ROMDAS is supplied with double sided Velcro tape, which is suitable for positioning the interface in many different ways and to hold it, steady. The photo to the right is an example of an installation at the rear of the centre console in a Pajero that was done using the adhesive Velcro.

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Connecting the Cables    

Odometer Cable. The cable connecting the odometer sensor needs to be run into the vehicle. This is done either via an existing hole in the firewall or by drilling a new hole. Roughness Cable. The BI extension cable should be run to the bump integrator if roughness is to be measured. Power Cable. ENSURE THE POWER IS TURNED OFF BEFORE CONNECTING. RS-232 Cable. The RS-232 cable should be screwed into the interface and then run to the computer.

The cables are usually wrapped together with tape or cable ties. For protection they should then be run under the carpets, seats, consoles to the point where the interface will be mounted before connecting them to the interface. The top of the interface is labelled with the location of the different connections.

Installing the Transverse Profile Logger Instructions The transverse profile logger (TPL) must be mechanically mounted on the front of the vehicle. It is connected to the computer via an Ethernet cable. Detailed instructions on installing the TPL are given in Appendix D. Components The following components are required for installing the TPL:  

TPL ( Housing with Master Controller, sensors and electronics) Power and Ethernet Connection Cables

Installing the Video System Instructions Detailed instructions on installing the video system are given in Appendix E. Components To record video images data the following components are supplied: Video camera Firewire PCMCIA Card if computer does not have a Firewire port  Cables  Power supply The components depending upon the type of video system purchased.  

Positioning the Camera The camera should be positioned on the vehicle so that it has a clear view of the road right-of-way. If the vehicle will be operated in rainy conditions it is advisable to mount the camera inside the vehicle otherwise it will be necessary to regularly stop and wipe clean the lens on the camera housing.

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Installing GPS Receivers Instructions Detailed instructions on installing GPS receivers are given in Appendix F Components To record GPS data the following components are supplied:    

GPS receiver Cable to supply power to receiver GPS antenna RS-232 cable to connect GPS receiver to computer

Positioning the GPS Unit The GPS receiver should be positioned so that it is clear of the floor. The receivers can be affixed using double-sided Velcro or with some receivers an optional kit is available to hold the unit. The antenna is usually mounted on the roof of the vehicle. The antenna should have as clear a view of the sky as is practicable. Activating GPS Measurements Activating GPS measurements are described in Chapter 11.

Installing the Laser Profilometer Instructions Detailed instructions on installing the Laser Profilometer are given in Appendix C Components The Laser Profilometer data gives the longitudinal profile of the pavement for determining roughness in IRI (m/km). The following components are supplied with the Laser Profilometer:      

Laser Unit Ethernet Switch High Resolution DMI Laser DMI Interface Mounting Bar Cabling

Positioning the Laser The following should be considered when positioning the Laser:  

It must be mounted at least 430 mm away from the road surface when the vehicle is carrying its expected weight It must be mounted as parallel as possible to the road surface

Installing the Laser Once a suitable position has been established the following is done:  Attach the laser to the mounting bar  Mount the High Resolution DMI to the wheel  Connect cabling

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Software setup

Digital Cameras Overview Digital cameras can be used during ROMDAS surveys for taking still photographs of roadside events, such as location reference points, structures, etc. By linking the digital photographs to keyboard events, ROMDAS will store the file name when the photograph is taken. The photographs can then be readily accessed from database management systems. As many photos as required can be taken of each event.

Activating Digital Camera Photos The settings for the digital photographs are located under: Tools|Options|Digital Camera Settings Selecting this gives the screen to the right. Where the user defines the digital photograph settings

 



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Generate File Name: This will see the name of the photograph generated and stored with the data files. Camera Type: The type of camera used. Each camera has its own unique naming convention which numbers the digital photographs sequentially, the following are the conventions used with each camera, where xxxxx is a sequential number. Fuji MX 1200

DSCfxxxx.jpg

HP C20/C30

DSCxxxxx.jpg

Ricoh 6000

RIMGxxxx.jpg

Sony DSC-F505

DSCxxxxx.jpg

Defined Camera File Name: Additional cameras can be included by selecting NEW as the camera type and defining the camera name in the window to the top right. The character prefix and the number of characters are then defined based on the naming convention used by the camera (bottom right).

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3 Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware

Using Digital Cameras in Surveys Having activated the digital camera option it is necessary to associate a keyboard event with a digital photo (see Section 0) and/or enable digital photos to be taken at LRP’s (see Section 0).

Installing Additional Communication Ports Overview Most computers, particularly Laptops, come with no or only a single COM port. When using ROMDAS it is usually necessary to add extra COM ports via a USB to Serial (RS-232) converter. All devices require drivers to run under Windows. These should be supplied with the system otherwise they can be located on the ROMDAS CD under the Software|Drivers folder. Once a device is installed, it should be verified from the Windows Control Panel. 

Select Start|Settings|Control Panel



Select System | Device Manager and the window to the right is opened. This lists the devices installed on the computer. Expand the entry for Ports (COM & LPT)



The available ports will be listed, such as shown below which gives the available ports with a Socket IO dual PCMCIA card.

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3 Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware

Setting Communication Parameters Assigning COM Ports It is necessary to assign the communication (COM) ports that each instrument will operate at. These are defined through the Setup Options dialog form for each device:

The following should be noted: 



Each instrument must be assigned to a different COM port if it is to be used simultaneously. The drop down list will list the available COM ports and any existing ROMDAS Instrument COM port assignments Some instruments need to have Baud rate and other serial parameters set to match the settings on the instrument. Where this is applicable an additional Set button will be available beside the COM port drop down list as in the following GPS settings form.

The table below lists the appropriate values for the different instruments used with ROMDAS. Instrument Supplier Settings These settings cannot be changed for the following instruments: Hardware interface DCL 38400,N, 8,1 These settings must match the settings on the Instrument but usually are set to: GPS – Garmin GPS18 /12XL GPS – Trimble SPS 461 Laser Surveyor

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Garmin Trimble Laser Atlanta

9600,N, 8,1 56,000,N, 8,1 4800,N, 8,1

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3 Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware

Testing the Instruments Overview The final step of the installation process is to test the instruments using the Test menu:

Test Hardware Interface The ROMDAS hardware interface has a series of LED's on the unit to assist with testing and diagnostics. The chart below summarises how these are used to investigate problems with the interface or the connections when executing a roughness survey, either in a vehicle or with the ROMDAS tester. Hardware interface v5.4 and V6.0 Press Space Bar to Start Survey

Turn On Interface 

All LEDs On for 2 second.s. Then RED Power on Green BI and ODO LEDS flash if inputs recieving pulses

 

  

 

RED power LED on Yellow PC flashing GREEN LEDs blink as unit receives ODO and BI pulese

If RED LED goes out or is intermittant there is a problem with the power to the unit If the ODO LED is not blinking when driving check the odometer sensor and cabling or connect the tester If the BI LED is not blinking check the cabling to BI or connect the tester

Test GPS The ‘Test GPS’ option is used to test the receiver to ensure that data are being received. A successful test shows:  



The instrument is connected to the appropriate port; and, The correct instrument settings are in the ROMDAS software. As described in Chapter 0, there are several different ways of data being transmitted from the GPS receiver to ROMDAS and it is important that the system be properly set. Select the type of GPS to use  Trimble instruments should use Trimble TSIP protocol settings if available.

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3 Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware Other instruments NMEA Select Tools|Test Instruments|Test GPS Select Start   

The data from the GPS receiver will be logged to the PC. It will be converted to the latitude, longitude and altitude. The Data Received box will show the actual NMEA sentences being received. The screen below is an example of such data. NOTE: It is common for receivers to take several minutes to initialise and begin logging their data.

The following should be noted with regard to this test:   

If the GPS time is displayed but there is no position information (latitude, longitude, and altitude) this is because there are insufficient satellites in view. Try moving the antenna If there is no GPS time:  Ensure that the antenna can see satellites (i.e. is it outdoors in an open area?) Check the communications parameters and COM Port through the Test COM Port menu

Test TPL The ‘Test TPL’ option is used to test the Transverse Profile Logger instrument. This instrument is used to obtain the transverse profile of the road to measure rut depth.  

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Connect the TPL Master Controller Select Test|Test Instruments|Test TPL

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3 Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware

Test Laser Surveyor The ‘Test Laser Surveyor’ option is used to test the hand-held Laser Surveyor instrument. This instrument is used to obtain the position of objects adjacent to the road.   

Select Test|Test Instruments|Test Laser Surveyor Point the laser at an object at least 5 m away Press the trigger

The screen should display the distance to the object, its bearing and the slope. If there is no data received check the communications parameters and COM Port through the Test COM Port menu. Test Geometry The ‘Test Geometry’ option is used to test the ROMDAS Geometry Unit.  

Connect all cables Start the Geometry test

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3 Installing and Testing the Survey Hardware

Test TPL-LRMS The ‘Test TPL-LRMS’ option is used to test the ROMDAS LRMS Laser.   

Connect all cables Connect the power to the LRMS Start the TPL_LRMS test



Test Laser Profilometer The ‘Test Laser Profilometer’ option is used to test the ROMDAS Laser IP connections.   

Connect all cables Connect the power to the Laser Start the laser Connections test

The display will be as shown below showing the IP connections of each unit.

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4 Principles of Road Measurement

4. Principles of Road Measurement Introduction Overview Before describing the ROMDAS and its features, it is important to appreciate some of the principles of road measurement. A proper understanding of these principles will ensure that the ROMDAS system is used to its full potential. Terminology The following terminology is employed in this User’s Guide:        

Chainage: the location along a road from a start point (in m). LRP: Location Reference Point. A permanent marker or feature adjacent to the road used as a reference point for surveys. Keyboard rating: recording events with the PC (or external rating) keyboard. Continuous event: an event on, or adjacent to, the road which applies over a section of the road (e.g. a cracked section) Point event: an event on or adjacent to the road which applies to a point (e.g. a traffic sign or culvert). Sampling interval: the interval over which data are recorded. It is usually 100 - 1000 m for roughness surveys. Transverse profile: the pavement profile across a lane. Longitudinal profile: the pavement profile along a lane.

Location Reference Points Using LRPs When conducting a survey, the most important single consideration is the location referencing system. The location referencing system used in ROMDAS is a linear system i.e. the survey starts at a given point and progresses along the road. The survey chainage increases as you drive away from the start point and decreases when heading back along the same road towards the start point. Surveys are always done between a start and end point. The common practice is only to record these two chainages, however, this is inadvisable. No matter how well calibrated a distance/speed sensor is, there will be variations in the lengths recorded between different surveys on the same road. This will create problems in reconciling data. A better approach is to have regular Location Reference Points (LRPs) along the road. These can be existing km stones, culverts, buildings, signs, or any physical feature which will not change between surveys. By selecting LRPs at regular intervals, generally 1 km, one minimises the errors between different surveys, particularly those conducted in successive years. This is done by resetting the chainage at each LRP thereby expressing all data in terms of the offset from the last LRP. To illustrate the importance of using LRPs and resetting the chainages at each LRP, consider Figure 1. This consists of a road which has been accurately surveyed and has LRPs at 1000 m and 2000 m.

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4 Principles of Road Measurement

Figure 1: Implications of LRP Resets on Survey Chainages No matter how well calibrated the odometer is, it will never read exactly the same in two surveys of the same road. This applies not only to the ROMDAS, but to any distance measuring device. Proper calibration limits these effects, but they can never be eliminated. Thus, in each subsequent survey the sections will not be identical, with the chainage errors accumulating as one travels along the road. In Case 1, the odometer is underestimating the distance. As a consequence, the actual sampling intervals are greater than the target 250 m. At the first LRP there is only a small difference, however, as one continues along the road the errors accumulate so one eventually has the target segments completely out of synchronisation with the actual segments. However, were one using LRP resets the errors would not accumulate and would only pertain to the last sampling interval. This is illustrated in Figure 1 under “Case 1 - Reset” where the final sampling interval before the LRP reset is shorter than the others. At each LRP the data are resynchronised thereby ensuring that the errors are confined to each section. It is also important to note that the data, for example the roughness, is calculated on the actual distance measured so the value will be representative of that actual segment, even though they are measured on a shorter segment. Case 2 arises when the odometer is over-estimating the chainage. As in Case 1, the error accumulates so the sections are soon unsynchronised. In this instance, ROMDAS synchronises the sections depending upon the distance after the last sampling interval when the LRP is recorded. Two situations arise: 



the user can specify a distance after the LRP to increment to the next LRP. By default, this is set at 100 per cent of the sampling interval. If the LRP is recorded within this zone, the data will be stored as in “Case 2 - Reset A”; if the LRP is not recorded within this zone, the data are recorded as “Case 2 - Reset B”.

Implications of Odometer Error To illustrate the importance of resetting chainages at LRPs, consider the following example from a typical (and real life) odometer calibration. Three runs were made with the vehicle over a 200 m section. The number of odometer pulses recorded were 973, 975 and 977 over the section. These corresponded to 4865, 4875 and 4885 pulses per km. Assuming that the mean of 4875 is appropriate, the following is the distances that would have arisen with each of these values:

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4 Principles of Road Measurement

The above data show that the small difference of 2 pulses over 200 m can translate into an error of 100 m over 50 km. Over short distances, such as are used with LRP resets, the error is small enough to be ignored. Importance of LRP Resets The importance of using LRP resets cannot be overemphasised. Highway agencies which do not use these invariably have problems reconciling their data from year to year. Many have to resort to sophisticated (or not so sophisticated!) processing algorithms (“rubber banding”), while others simply give up in frustration. ROMDAS has been designed in such a way that you can easily avoid these problems. Because of that we STRONGLY recommend the use of LRP resets. ROMDAS has been designed to make full use of LRPs. The software will let the user supply a file containing a list of LRPs and their chainages, as recorded in a previous survey. As the survey progresses, the ROMDAS informs the operator that the vehicle is approaching an LRP established in a previous survey along with a description of the LRP. The operator will then press the ESC key when the vehicle is adjacent to the LRP. The recording is then reset thereby ensuring that the data corresponds exactly to the measurements made in previous surveys. The end chainages can be synchronised by replacing the surveyed chainage with the measured chainage from the LRP survey. It is also possible to insert new LRPs into an existing file or even to create an entirely new LRP file during a survey. It is recommended that the chainages of the LRPs be established either in a separate survey or during the first roughness survey. These LRPs can then be used in all future surveys to ensure sampling consistency.

Distance Measurement Accuracy Measurements The above discussion of LRPs touched upon the issue of measurement accuracy. It must be appreciated that the accuracy of your distance measurement is directly proportional to the number of pulses measured per km. With a Proximity odometer vehicles generate 2000 - 7000 pulses/km. This corresponds to 0.5 - 0.14 m/pulse which is adequate for most applications.

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4 Principles of Road Measurement The exception to this is when looking at acceleration behaviour in travel time surveys. Unless there is approximately 5000 pulses/km one finds that the results are insufficiently accurate to get a good estimate of the acceleration behaviour. The ROMDAS High Resolution Distance Measurement Instrument (HRDMI) is available for situations where high resolutions are required.

Visual Keyboard Rating Principles The principle behind keyboard rating is to use the survey vehicle to establish the chainage of features, pavement condition or other roadside events. Types of Events Before undertaking keyboard rating it is necessary to break down the items to be measured into point and continuous events:  

a point event is something which exists at a single point in space, such as traffic signs or LRPs; or, a continuous event is something which exists over a section, such as pavement condition. Continuous events have two chainages: a beginning and end chainage.

There is a special type of continuous event called a switch event. This can be understood as a series of continuous events. For example, one may define a ranking for pavement condition from 0 to 5. These are continuous events so one would normally have to press two keys when changing; one to end the previous condition and one to apply to the new condition. Switch events remove the need to press two keys. When the second key is pressed the first event is cancelled2. Assigning Events It is necessary to allocate an individual key on the computer keyboard to each event. These should be carefully selected so as to be both easily accessible and easy to remember. It is good practice to tape small labels to the keys identifying the event. When recording pavement condition it is recommended that the severity of the event also be recorded. This is done by allocating several keys to the same event, each with differing severities, for example: Key A S D F

Description No cracks Low cracking High Cracking Extreme Cracking

It is strongly advised that any severity rating system must include a ‘no defect’ condition since many models which use condition data have different functions for ‘no’ versus ‘some’ distresses. When selecting the number of distresses to record, and their severities, always bear in mind the practical limitations of the operator. The greater the number to record the more difficult it is to get reliable and repeatable results.

2

36

Normally, one has events that apply continuously along a section of road. For example, there will always be either no cracking or a level of cracking. ROMDAS defaults to having the user switch only between switch events; you cannot have ‘no’ event. However, this can be overruled in the keycode event setup screen.

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4 Principles of Road Measurement Rating Keyboards There are special 20 or 58 ROMDAS rating keyboards available which are designed to facilitate condition rating surveys. Each key can be individually programmed to any key on the computer keyboard. These greatly simplify the visual rating process. The programming of these keyboards is described in Appendix G.

20 Key Keyboard

58 Key Keyboard

For example, one can assign different distresses to the rows and different severities to the columns. This greatly simplifies the correct identification of the key to press for a distress. For inventory surveys the keys could be labelled with different inventory items. The figure is an example of how a 58 key rating keyboard could be labelled to collect different data. Here, the condition is being expressed in terms of the Surface Integrity Index which is a 0 to 5 scale3.

It is possible to record keyboard events before the survey actually starts. This allows the operators to mark the events so that they are recorded at the survey chainage. For further information on Preliminary Keycodes see Section 0

Surveying Adjacent Sections The Problem A problem can often arise when measuring two adjacent lanes on a two-lane road. When the survey of the first lane is completed the vehicle must be turned around to measure the second lane. Roughness is measured over regular sampling intervals but the last interval is usually of a shorter length than the sampling interval. When measuring the roughness in the second lane unless the first interval length is the same as the last interval for the previous lane, the survey results will be staggered and not correspond to exactly adjacent sections. This problem can be visualised as under diagram (a).

3

Paterson, W.D.O. (1993). A Standard Surface integrity Index of Pavement Condition: Definition and Measurement Procedure. Internal Paper, the World Bank, Washington, D.C.

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4 Principles of Road Measurement ROMDAS allows the user to terminate a survey, reposition the vehicle and start the survey on the other lane. It adjusts the first interval length so that it is the same as the last interval for the previous lane. This ensures that the results of a roughness survey apply to adjacent samples. This is illustrated below under diagram (b).

The user does not need to survey the other side of the road immediately. By opening an existing file the operator will be prompted if they want to continue an existing survey or survey the other side. This makes it possible to plan the surveys in the most efficient manner possible. NOTE: This option cannot be used in conjunction with LRP resets. In such a case there should be separate files of LRPs for each lane. It will also not work if you are manually defining the end of the roughness sampling interval.

Programming a Survey Overview To improve the efficiency of the survey programme it is often necessary to interrupt what should be a continuous run to measure roads running off from the primary survey route. An example of this is shown below. The procedure to follow is: 

 

The operators shall terminate the main survey at an LRP or other roadside feature which will be easy to return to (Run 1). It is generally recommended that this be past the point where the other surveys are to commence. They may then execute the other surveys (Run 2 and Run 3). They shall return to where they ended the previous survey they enter the same Survey_ID as was used previously. They will then be given the option to Continue the previous run. The data collection will be started where they left off and, once processed, both components of Run 1 will be integrated.

Run 2

Run 3

LRP or Roadside Feature

Run 1

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Continuation of Run 1

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5 Calibrating the Instruments

5. Calibrating the Instruments Introduction Overview Before any surveys can be conducted it is necessary to calibrate the instruments. The following calibrations must be done:    

Odometer: This is required for all vehicles. This ensures that the distances and speeds recorded by the survey vehicle are correct. Roughness Meter: The roughness meter must be calibrated on Roughness calibration sections against the International Roughness Index (IRI). Transverse Profile Logger: The distance measurements of the TPL must be calibrated and the instrument levelled. Laser Profilometer: The accuracy of the Profilometer must be monitored with the Bounce checks. If this calibration test does not meet the requirements or the Profilometer or it is past its calibration expiry date, the Profilometer should be returned for calibration.

Odometer Calibration Frequency Every 5000 km Equipment Required The following equipment is required:      

DMI and Roughness Calibration log E012 Form 1 (see Appendix I) ROMDAS vehicle with DMI operating and computer installed Chalk for marking tyre Tyre pressure gauge Tape measure (the longer the tape the easier to maintain accurate measurements – 50 m or greater is preferred) Paint for marking start and end of section.

Locating and Marking the Calibration Section It is necessary to locate a section of road which is flat and straight with little traffic for the calibration and which is at least 200 m long (preferably 300 m or more).    

Locate the start of the section at a permanent feature, such as a traffic sign. Mark this start location with paint. Measure along the road with the tape measure to a second permanent feature. Mark this end location with paint. Note: For future reference and audit it is imperative that the Odometer Calibration section is well marked, maintained and easily identifiable. This site will now become the distance reference standard for all your ROMDAS surveys so care and attention are vital.

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5 Calibrating the Instruments Calibration Preparing the Vehicle    

Drive vehicle for minimum of 10 km to ensure that tyres are at operating temperature Check pressure with a tyre gauge and ensure that tyres are at their manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure4. Park vehicle with a wheel over the pavement paint mark Mark tyre with white chalk where tyre meets pavement paint mark (if using low resolution DMI – see below)

Running the Calibration     

Start the ROMDAS software Select Calibrate|Odometer|Run Odometer Calibration Use the Add New Vehicle button to enter the name of the vehicle to be calibrated or select an existing vehicle from the drop down Vehicle list (see below). Press the Space Bar to start calibration Drive to end of the test section5

The next steps will differ depending on the resolution of the DMI. If you are using a HI RES DMI then just stop exactly on the end of calibration section mark and press Space Bar otherwise:



Continue past the end of calibration section mark and stop vehicle at place where the point marked by chalk on the tyre meets the pavement Press Space Bar to end calibration Measure the distance travelled past the end of calibration section mark



Enter the distance of the calibration section (plus the distance travelled past if required as above)



Press Calculate and the calibration factor will be displayed

 

4 5

Manufacturers recommended pressures usually on sticker on back of driver’s side door frame. It is important that the vehicle does not move backwards at any time during the calibration as this will give false distance pulses.

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5 Calibrating the Instruments

 

Record the number of pulses and data of calibration in the Odometer calibration spreadsheet Repeat for 5 runs

Analysis A workbook template Odometer Calibration.xlt is available for the calculations. It is located on the ROMDAS CD under menu ROMDAS Software|Templates. This template is shown below.

 

Enter the data for each of the runs If the error tolerance is < 0.1% the 90 and 95% confidence intervals will show the word ‘Pass’. If it is greater than 0.1% it will show ‘Fail’. In this instance additional runs should be done.

For a discussion of the statistical basis for the above calculations please see Appendix B (Installing and Calibrating Roughness Meters). Entering Results to Software Every time a calibration survey is run the last calibration factor is stored for use. This value should be replaced by the Mean calibration factor calculated from the multiple runs in the Odometer Calibration workbook. 

Select Calibrate| Calibrate Odometer Calibration Factor

Odometer|

Edit



Select the appropriate vehicle



Enter the mean calibration factor spreadsheet



Enter the tyre pressure used for calibration (usually the manufacturers recommended tyre pressure) with units.



Enter the vehicle odometer amount with units.



Select Apply

from the

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5 Calibrating the Instruments

Roughness Meter Calibration Frequency Before each major roughness survey or every 5000 km Equipment Required The following equipment is required:   

DMI and Roughness Calibration log E012 Form 1 (see Appendix I) ROMDAS vehicle with DMI and roughness meters operating and computer installed Roughness calibration test sites (see Appendix B)

Calibration Preparing the Vehicle  

Drive vehicle for minimum of 10 km to ensure that tyres are at operating temperature Check pressure with a tyre gauge and ensure that tyres are at their manufacturer’s recommended operating pressure.

Running the Calibration    

 

6

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Start the ROMDAS software Select Calibrate|Calibrate Roughness Meter Enter the test section ID, description and select the vehicle to be calibrated Enter the length of the calibration section

Press F10 to prepare the system to store the data Drive the vehicle to the appropriate speed6.

One must calibrate the vehicle for each speed that is surveyed. Typically, these consist of low speeds (eg 30-50 km/h) and high speeds (eg 80 – 100 km/h). Average Interval Speed should be within ± 2.3 km/h of selected calibration speed.

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5 Calibrating the Instruments 

When the vehicle reaches the start of the test section press the Space Bar to start logging. The software will record for the distance entered (in the example above 300 m) and then automatically stop. The results will be displayed as shown below.



Record the speed and raw count for each BI Perform at least three runs at each speed and check that the data are of an appropriate accuracy as described under analysis below. Perform additional runs as required. Repeat for each test section.

 

Analysis A workbook template Roughness Calibration.xlt is available for the calculations. It is located on the ROMDAS CD under menu ROMDAS Software|Templates. The Data Sheet in the workbook is shown below.

    

Enter the roughness of the test section in IRI m/km in Site IRI column (as established with Class 1 Device such as ROMDAS Z250). Enter the calibration speed of the vehicle run in Calibration Speed Column. Check that the actual average speed is within ± 2.3 km/h of the calibration speed. Enter the data for the roughness from each of the three runs in ROMDAS Raw BI Count columns. As described in Appendix B, if the mean is not statistically significant at 90 or 95% confidence intervals the data will show Fail in Pass/Fail columns. In this case, perform additional runs until Pass is shown. It may also be appropriate to delete outliers.

Note: If two bump integrators are used the data should be entered for each BI into the workbook. The above example is for a single BI.

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5 Calibrating the Instruments

Roughness Calibration Equations Roughness calibration equations are used to convert the raw survey roughnesses into a calibrated roughness index (IRI m/km). The template Roughness Calibration.xlt can be used to establish these equations. The Roughness Plot Sheet shows the mean roughness from Raw BI Count per KM Column plotted against the Site IRI Column. A linear or non-linear regression can be done on these data by right clicking on the data series points and selecting Fit Trendline. The figure below is an example of these equations in the linear form.

Defining Coefficients in ROMDAS Having established the regression equations the coefficients can be entered in ROMDAS. In the example above linear equations for each speed have been established with R2 0), that the standard error is
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