Robot Training Manual Eng 190

September 15, 2017 | Pengarang: boguman | Kategori: Button (Computing), Stress (Mechanics), Icon (Computing), Stress–Strain Analysis, Beam (Structure)
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ROBOT MILLENNIUM v 19.0 - TRAINING MANUAL

UPDATE, November 2005

Table of Contents

1.

3D FRAME (WITH THE USE OF THE ROBOT MILLENNIUM LAYOUTS) ................................... 5 1.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION ........................................................................................................ 6 1.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 10 1.3 RESULT ANALYSIS................................................................................................................................. 10 1.4 STEEL DESIGN......................................................................................................................................... 11 1.5 DESIGN OF STEEL CONNECTIONS...................................................................................................... 12 1.6 STRESS ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................. 13

2.

2D FRAME (WITHOUT THE USE OF THE ROBOT MILLENNIUM LAYOUTS)......................... 15 2.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION ...................................................................................................... 16 2.1.1 Structure Bar Definition ...................................................................................................................... 17 2.1.2 Library Structure Definition ................................................................................................................ 18 2.1.3 Support Definition ............................................................................................................................... 20 2.1.4 Load Case Definition........................................................................................................................... 20 2.1.5 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases ............................................................................................ 21 2.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 22 2.3 RESULT ANALYSIS................................................................................................................................. 23 2.4 RC BEAM DESIGN WITH TORSION CONSIDERED ........................................................................... 24 2.5 RC COLUMN DESIGN ............................................................................................................................. 25 2.6 DESIGN OF RC MEMBERS..................................................................................................................... 28

3.

CONCRETE SLAB .................................................................................................................................... 29 3.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION ...................................................................................................... 29 3.1.1 Contour Definition............................................................................................................................... 29 3.1.2 Mesh Definition ................................................................................................................................... 30 3.1.3 Slab Properties .................................................................................................................................... 30 3.1.4 Opening Properties.............................................................................................................................. 31 3.1.5 Support Definition ............................................................................................................................... 31 3.1.6 Load Case Definition........................................................................................................................... 32 3.1.7 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases ............................................................................................ 33 3.1.8 Display of Generated Load Cases ....................................................................................................... 34 3.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS / RESULTS (MAPS ON PANELS CUTS) .................................................... 35 3.3 CALCULATIONS OF THE REQUIRED (THEORETICAL) REINFORCEMENT AREA ..................... 37 3.4. CALCULATIONS OF THE PROVIDED (REAL) REINFORCEMENT AREA ..................................... 38

4.

EXAMPLES OF STRUCTURE DEFINITIONS (EXTRUDE AND REVOLVE OPTIONS) ............. 40 4.1 SILO ........................................................................................................................................................... 40 4.2 COOLER .................................................................................................................................................... 45 4.3 PIPELINE................................................................................................................................................... 47 4.4 AXISYMMETRICAL STRUCTURES...................................................................................................... 50

5.

DESIGN OF A 2D FRAME ....................................................................................................................... 54 5.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION ...................................................................................................... 55 5.2 DEFINITION OF LOAD CASES AND LOADS....................................................................................... 56 5.3 DEFINITION OF SNOW/WIND LOADS................................................................................................. 57 5.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 58 5.5 DETAILED ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................ 58 5.6 STRUCTURE DESIGN ............................................................................................................................. 59 5.7 GLOBAL ANALYSIS................................................................................................................................ 62 5.8 DESIGN OF STEEL CONNECTIONS...................................................................................................... 63 5.9 PRINTOUT COMPOSITION .................................................................................................................... 64

6.

DEFINITION OF MOVING LOADS FOR A 2D FRAME .................................................................... 66

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6.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL ....................................................................................... 67 6.1.1 Definition of Structure Bars................................................................................................................. 67 6.1.2 Definition of Library Structures (a Roof and an Overhead Traveling Crane Beam) .......................... 68 6.1.3 Support Definition ............................................................................................................................... 70 6.1.4 Definition of Structure Loads .............................................................................................................. 71 6.1.5 Definition of a Moving Load Applied to the Structure ........................................................................ 72 6.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 74 6.3 PRESENTATION OF THE VEHICLE AND THE MOVING LOAD CASE ........................................... 75 6.4 RESULT ANALYSIS................................................................................................................................. 75 6.5 INFLUENCE LINES.................................................................................................................................. 76 7.

3D WORKSHOP WITH A MOVING CRANE ....................................................................................... 78 7.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL ....................................................................................... 79 7.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................ 90 7.3 STRUCTURE DESIGN ............................................................................................................................. 92 7.4 INFLUENCE LINES.................................................................................................................................. 96

8.

3D BRIDGE WITH A MOVING LOAD.................................................................................................. 99 8.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL ..................................................................................... 101 8.1.1 Definition of Structure Geometry ...................................................................................................... 101 8.1.2 Load Definition.................................................................................................................................. 107 8.1.3 Definition of the Moving Load Applied to the Bridge Floor ............................................................. 110 8.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................... 114 8.2.1 Result Presentation in the Form of Maps .......................................................................................... 114 8.3 STRUCTURE MEMBER DESIGN ......................................................................................................... 115 8.3.1 Structure Design ................................................................................................................................ 116 8.4 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS.................................................................................................................. 122

9.

VOLUMETRIC STRUCTURE ............................................................................................................... 127 9.1 DEFINITION OF STRUCTURE MODEL .............................................................................................. 128 9.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS ...................................................................................................................... 141 9.3 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS IN THE FORM OF MAPS ................................................................ 142

10.

BAR STRUCTURE DESIGN (ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS) ................................................... 144

10.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL ................................................................................... 145 10.1.1 Code Selection ................................................................................................................................. 145 10.1.2 Definition of Structural Axis............................................................................................................ 145 10.1.3 Definition of Structure Bars............................................................................................................. 146 10.1.4 Definition of a Library Structure ..................................................................................................... 148 10.1.5 Addition of an Auxiliary Node ......................................................................................................... 149 10.1.6 Definition of Brackets on Bars ........................................................................................................ 149 10.1.7 Definition of Supports...................................................................................................................... 150 10.1.8 Definition of Geometrical Imperfections ......................................................................................... 150 10.1.9 Definition of Load Cases ................................................................................................................. 151 10.1.10 Definition of Loads for the Generated Load Cases ....................................................................... 151 10.1.11 Snow/Wind Load Generation......................................................................................................... 152 10.1.12 Generation of Automatic Code Combinations............................................................................... 152 10.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND RESULT VERIFICATION .............................................................. 153 10.3 ELASTO-PLASTIC ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................... 153 10.3.1 Change of Load Case Definitions.................................................................................................... 153 10.3.2 Structure Analysis............................................................................................................................ 154 10.3.3 Change of Bar Sections for Elasto-Plastic Analysis........................................................................ 154 10.3.4 Structure Analysis and Result Verification ...................................................................................... 155 11.

DESIGN OF A BAR STRUCTURE WITH ADDED MASSES........................................................ 156

11.1 DEFINITION OF THE STRUCTURE MODEL ................................................................................... 157 11.2 CALCULATIONS AND RESULT ANALYSIS.................................................................................... 164 12.

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DEFINITION OF A PUSHOVER ANALYSIS CASE ...................................................................... 167

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12.1 STRUCTURE MODEL DEFINITION .................................................................................................. 168 12.2 DEFINITION OF THE PUSHOVER ANALYSIS CASE ..................................................................... 171 12.3 DEFINITION OF A NON-LINEAR HINGE ......................................................................................... 172 12.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 175 12.5 RESULT ANALYSIS............................................................................................................................. 175 12.6 RESULTS - DIAGRAMS OF PUSHOVER ANALYSIS ...................................................................... 175 12.7 RESULTS – CAPACITY CURVE........................................................................................................ 176 13.

RC BEAM DESIGN - ACI CODE (ROBOT STAND-ALONE MODE) ......................................... 177

13.1 CONFIGURATION (PROGRAM PREFERENCES) ............................................................................ 177 13.2 BEAM DESIGN ..................................................................................................................................... 178 14.

RC COLUMN DESIGN - ACI CODE (ROBOT STAND-ALONE MODE) ................................... 184

14.1 CONFIGURATION (PROGRAM PREFERENCES) ............................................................................ 184 14.2 COLUMN DESIGN ............................................................................................................................... 185 15.

RC FOUNDATION DESIGN - ACI CODE (ROBOT STAND-ALONE MODE) .......................... 191

15.1 CONFIGURATION (PROGRAM PREFERENCES) ............................................................................ 191 15.2 SIMPLE FOOTING DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 192 16.

DEFINITION OF A 2D FRAME ........................................................................................................ 197

16.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION ................................................................................................................. 198 16.1.1 Definition of a Working Language and Codes ................................................................................ 198 16.1.2 Structure Axis Definition ................................................................................................................. 199 16.1.3 Structure Axis Modification ............................................................................................................. 199 16.1.4 Column and Beam Definition .......................................................................................................... 200 16.1.5 Truss Definition ............................................................................................................................... 201 16.1.6 Definition of Releases on the Ends of Diagonals ............................................................................ 206 16.1.7 Support Definition ........................................................................................................................... 206 16.1.8 Load Definition................................................................................................................................ 207 16.1.9 Structure Modification..................................................................................................................... 210 16.1.10 Additional Load Definition ............................................................................................................ 211 16.1.11 Load Combination Definition ........................................................................................................ 212 16.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 213 16.3 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS IN THE GRAPHICAL FORM................................................................... 213 16.4 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS IN THE TABLE FORM ............................................................................ 214 16.5 DETAILED ANALYSIS OF BARS....................................................................................................... 215 16.6 DIMENSION LINES.............................................................................................................................. 216 16.7 CODE PARAMETERS FOR STEEL DESIGN ..................................................................................... 218 16.8 STEEL MEMBER VERIFICATION AND DESIGN ............................................................................ 219 16.9 GROUP DEFINITION, VERIFICATION AND OPTIMIZATION ...................................................... 221 16.10 STRESS ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................... 223 17.

DEFINITION OF AN RC SLAB......................................................................................................... 224

17.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION ................................................................................................................. 224 17.2 DEFINITION OF SLAB LOADS .......................................................................................................... 230 17.3 MESHING OPTIONS ............................................................................................................................ 233 17.4 DEFINITION OF BEAMS SUPPORTING THE SLAB ....................................................................... 235 17.5 DEFINITION OF THE BEAM SUPPORTING THE ARC-SHAPED SLAB ....................................... 236 17.6 DEFINITION OF CONCENTRATED FORCES................................................................................... 238 17.7 DEFINITION OF LOAD COMBINATIONS ........................................................................................ 239 17.8 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 240 17.8.1 Results in the Map Form.................................................................................................................. 240 17.8.2 Results in the Table Form................................................................................................................ 241 17.9 REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION ....................................................................................................... 242 17.9.1 Structure Analysis............................................................................................................................ 243 17.9.2 Reinforcement Calculations............................................................................................................. 243 17.9.3 Analysis of Reinforcement Results................................................................................................... 244 17.9.4 Results in the Text Form .................................................................................................................. 245 Web: www.robot-structures.com e-mail : [email protected] Techsupport : [email protected]

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2D STRUCTURE (MIXED RC AND STEEL STRUCTURE) ......................................................... 247

18.1 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY.................................................................................................................. 248 18.1.1 Section Definition ............................................................................................................................ 248 18.1.2 Bar Definition .................................................................................................................................. 249 18.1.3 Support Definition ........................................................................................................................... 250 18.1.4 Load Definition................................................................................................................................ 250 18.1.5 Definition of Snow/Wind Loads ...................................................................................................... 251 18.1.6 RC Beam Design.............................................................................................................................. 252 18.1.7 RC Column Design .......................................................................................................................... 255 18.1.8 Change of the Structure Geometry and Type................................................................................... 258 18.1.9 Slab Definition................................................................................................................................. 261 18.1.10 Offset Definition ............................................................................................................................ 262 18.1.11 Front Wall Definition .................................................................................................................... 264 18.1.12 Definition of Supports on Wall Edges............................................................................................ 266 18.1.13 Definition of Additional Loads to Be Applied to the Slab.............................................................. 266 18.1.14 Definition of Combinations............................................................................................................ 267 18.1.15 Definition of Meshing Options....................................................................................................... 267 18.2 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 268 18.3 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS .................................................................................................................... 268 18.4 STRESS ANALYSIS FOR ALL STRUCTURE BARS......................................................................... 270 19.

3D STEEL STRUCTURE (MODAL AND TIME HISTORY ANALYSES)................................... 272

19.1 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY.................................................................................................................. 273 19.2 LOAD DEFINITION.............................................................................................................................. 279 19.3 LOAD COMBINATION DEFINITION ................................................................................................ 282 19.4 STRUCTURE ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................... 284 19.5 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS .................................................................................................................... 284 19.6 MODAL ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 285 19.6.1 Analysis of Vibration Eigenmodes................................................................................................... 286 19.7 TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS................................................................................................................ 287 20.

DEFINITION OF AN RC CONTAINER ........................................................................................... 290

20.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION ................................................................................................................. 291 20.2 LOAD DEFINITION.............................................................................................................................. 302 20.3 DEFINITION OF LOAD COMBINATIONS ........................................................................................ 304 20.4 RESULT ANALYSIS............................................................................................................................. 305 20.5 REINFORCEMENT CALCULATIONS................................................................................................ 306 20.6 MESH REFINEMENT ........................................................................................................................... 308 21.

DEFINITION OF A STEEL CONTAINER ....................................................................................... 311

21.1 STRUCTURE DEFINITION ................................................................................................................. 311 21.2 LOAD DEFINITION.............................................................................................................................. 312 21.3 DEFINITION OF LOAD COMBINATIONS ........................................................................................ 316 21.4 RESULT ANALYSIS............................................................................................................................. 317 22.

DEFINITION OF A SOLID / THIN-WALLED SECTION.............................................................. 320

22.1 SOLID SECTION................................................................................................................................... 320 22.2 THIN-WALLED SECTION................................................................................................................... 322

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ROBOT MILLENNIUM v 19.0 - TRAINING MANUAL

NOTE:

UPDATE, November 2005

In the examples below the following rule has been assumed to indicate definition of the beginning and end of a structure bar: for example, (0,0,6) (8,0,6) means that a bar beginning is positioned at a node with the coordinates as follows x = 0.0, y = 0.0 and z = 6.0 and a bar end - at a node with the coordinates as follows x = 8.0, y = 0.0 and z = 6.0. The separator (set in the Windows operating system) which separates successive coordinates is in this case a comma ‘,‘.

1. 3D Frame (with the Use of the Robot Millennium Layouts) This example presents definition, analysis and design of a simple steel 3D frame illustrated in the figure below. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

Four load cases have been assigned to each of the structure frames and three of them are displayed in the drawings below.

LOAD CASE 2

LOAD CASE 3

LOAD CASE 4

The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the last but one icon selected.

in the first row (Frame 3D Design) should be

NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.

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1.1 Structure Model Definition PERFORMED OPERATION

Structure Model/Bars LMC on the Bar Type field and select Column LMC on the Section field and select (W 14x211)

DESCRIPTION Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Selects bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the W 14x211 section is not available on the list, … one should press the ( ) button located beside the Section field and add this section to the active section list in the New section dialog box

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End field. (0,0,0) (0,0,10) Add (20,0,0) (20,0,10) Add

Defines two columns of the frame.

LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select Beam LMC on the Section field and select (W 12x190)

Starts definition of a beam and selects its properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the W 12x190 section is not available on the list, … one should press the ( ) button located beside the Section field and add this section to the active section list in the New section dialog box

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of a beam in the structure.

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End field. (0,0,10) (20,0,10), Add

Defines a beam.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Supports

Selects the Robot Millennium layout which allows support definition.

In the Supports dialog box, LMC on the Current Selection field (cursor is blinking in the field)

Selects structure nodes for which supports will be defined.

Switch to the graphic viewer; pressing the left mouse button select with the window all lower column nodes

Selected nodes 1 and 3 will be entered to the Current Selection field.

From the Supports dialog box select the fixed support icon (the icon will be highlighted)

Selects the support type.

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Apply

Selected support type will be assigned to chosen structure nodes; the defined structure is displayed on the drawing below.

LMC on the field for the selection of the Robot Millennium program layout Structure Model/Start

Selection of the initial Robot Millennium program layout. Note: If the structure is not visible in the graphic viewer,

CTRL+A

Selects all bars.

Edit / Edit / Vertical Mirror

Mirrors selected bars.

Graphically locate the vertical symmetry axis in the place of the right column (x = 20), LMC, Close

Performs the axial symmetry of selected bars and closes the Vertical Mirror dialog box.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the structure load definition.

press the

Zoom All icon.

Structure Model/Loads, press to show the whole structure LMC on the New button located in the Load Types dialog box

Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name DL1.

LMC on the Nature field (Wind)

Selects the type of load case wind.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button

Defines two cases of wind load with the standard names: WIND1 and WIND2

LMC on the Nature field (Live)

Selects the type of load case live.

LMC on the New button

Defines a live load with a standard name LL1. The self-weight load was automatically applied in the first row to all structure bars (in the “Z” direction).

LMC on the second field in the Case nd column, select the 2 load case WIND1 from the list

Defines loads for the second load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select (nodal force) as a load type

Selects the load type.

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LMC on the field in the List column, select the upper node of the left column (no. 2) in a graphic way

Selects nodes to which a nodal force load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "FX=" column and enter the value: (50.0)

Selects the direction and value of the force load.

LMC on the third field in the Case rd column, select the 3 load case WIND2 from the list

Defines loads for the third load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform) load

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select graphically the right edge column (no.4) LMC on the field in the "PX=" column and enter the value: (-10.0)

Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the fourth field in the Case th column, select the 4 load case LL1 from the list

Defines loads for the fourth load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform) load

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select graphically both beam spans (no. 3 and 5)

Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "PZ=" column and enter the value: (-2.0)

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load. Note: 2 bars can be selected simultaneously by means of window or by indicating successive bars with CTRL button pressed.

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.

LMC in the View viewer CTRL + A

Selects all structure bars.

While the graphic viewer with the structure model is active, select Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (0,24,0)

Defines the translation vector.

LMC on the Number of Repetitions field (1)

Defines the number of repetitions for performed translation operations.

Execute, Close

Translates the column and closes the Translation dialog box (proceed to the next step to see changes). Selects the isometric structure view (see the drawing below).

View / Projection / 3d xyz

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layout Structure Model/Bars

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Selects the Robot Millennium layout which allows definition of the bars.

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LMC on the Bar Type field and select: Beam LMC on the Section field and select (W 14x211)

Selects bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure.

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End field. (40,0,10) (40,24,10), Add

Defines a beam between the 6 and 12 nodes in the structure.

Structure Model/ Sections and Materials in the Section dialog box Selection of the angle family, in the Section field selection of the (L 4x4x0,25) section Add, Close

Structure Model/ Bars

Selects the SECTIONS AND MATERIALS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Opens the New Section dialog box. Defines a new section. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

LMC in the Bar Type field and select: Simple bar LMC on the Section field and select (L 4x4x0.25)

Selects bar properties.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green) (40,0,10) (40,24,0), Add (40,24,10) (40,0,0), Add

Bracing definition.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

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LMC on the View edit viewer; Select three recently defined bars (beam and bracing) - while the CTRL key is pressed LMC on three bars Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (-20,0,0)

Defines the translation vector.

LMC on the Number of Repetitions (2)

Defines the number of repetitions for performed translation operations.

Execute, Close

Column translation; closes the Translation dialog box.

1.2 Structure Analysis Starts calculations for the defined structure LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Results/Results

The RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium program opens. The screen is divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure model, the Diagrams dialog box and a table with reaction values.

1.3 Result Analysis Displays results for the fourth load case. Select 4: LL1 Select the Deformation tab from the Diagrams dialog box Turn on the Deformation option Apply

Displays structure deformation for the selected load case.

Displays structure deformation (see the drawing below). In a similar way, diagrams that exhibit other values available from the Diagrams dialog box can be viewed.

Turn off the Deformation option in the Diagrams dialog box, Apply

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LMC in the Reactions table on the field with the name of FZ

Selects the whole column FZ.

Format / Alignment / Centered and Format / Font / Bold

Edits result presentation for the Fz force.

RMC on the Reactions table

Calls up the context menu.

Table Columns

Selects the Table Columns option and opens the dialog box

LMC on the Supports tab, select the Support Code option, OK

(Scroll to the left to reach the Supports tab). An additional column with codes defined for the structure supports appears.

1.4 Steel Design Code: LRFD LMC on the box for the selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Design / Steel/Aluminum Design

Starts steel member design. The screen will be divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure model, the Definitions dialog box and the Calculations dialog box.

LMC on the List button in the Member Verification row from the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Member Selection dialog box.

Enter 1to10 in the field located above the Previous button, Close

Selects members for verification.

LMC on the Load Case Selection button in Calculations dialog box

Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.

LMC on the All button, Close

Selects all load cases.

LMC on the Calculations button

Starts verification of selected structure members; the Member Verification dialog box shown below will be displayed on the screen.

LMC on the row containing simplified results for member No. 3

Opens the Simplified Results – LRFD dialog box for the selected member.

LMC on the Simplified Results tab

Displays design results for member No. 4 (see the dialog box presented below).

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Close Results Member Verification and Results dialog boxes

1.5 Design of Steel Connections Code: Eurocode 3 LMC the field of the Robot Millennium program layout selection Structure design / Connections

Design of steel connections in a structure starts. The monitor screen will be divided into two parts: the Object Inspector dialog box (Steel Connections) and the graphical viewer; at the bottom of the graphical viewer there are three tabs: Scheme, 3D View and Structure.

Move on to the Structure tab and while having the graphical field displaying structure view active (highlighted), select from the menu: View / Projection / zx

The structure will be presented as projected on the zx plane (y coordinate is assumed to equal 0).

Select the utmost left column and the left span of the beam - while pressing the CTRL button, click the left mouse button on the mentioned bars

Selection of bars for which the connection will be verified. The selected bars are pointed out with arrows in the figure below.

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Connections / New Connection for Selected Bars

A connection is defined between the selected bars. The Connection Definition dialog box starts to display several tabs.

Select the Welds option located in the Connection Definition dialog box (the Sections tab), Apply, OK

Selection of the type of the defined steel connection

Connections / Calculations

Opening the Connection calculations dialog box

LMC the List field in the Load cases field

Definition of load cases considered during the connection verification

Enter here (1to4)

Selection of all the load cases

LMC the Calculations button

Verification of the connection starts; short results are presented in the Object Inspector dialog box and a detailed calculation note is displayed on the Results tab (this tab is accessible only after calculations of the connection are performed).

1.6 Stress Analysis LMC the field of the Robot Millennium program layout selection Results / Stress Analysis structure

Starts structure stress analysis. The screen will be divided into three parts: graphical viewer presenting a structure model, the Stress Analysis dialog box and the Stress Analysis - structure result table.

From the top selection toolbar choose the second load case 2: WIND1

Selects the second load case.

On the Diagrams tab located in the Stress Analysis - structure dialog box select the Max option from the Mises field On the Maps - Deformation tab select the Deformation option Apply

Starts calculations and presents stress values on structure bars (the table displays values of the appropriate stresses).

While in the window presenting the structure view - View / Projection / 3d xyz

Selects the axonometric structure view.

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Move to the Stress Analysis structure table View / Dynamic View 3D

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Sets the 3D view that allows presenting the structure together with shapes of the sections and detailed stress maps on these sections (the defined structure with the selected stresses is shown in the figure below).

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2. 2D Frame (without the Use of the Robot Millennium Layouts) This example is used to show the definition, analysis and design of a simple 2D frame illustrated in the figure below. The frame is made of the RC frame and the truss generated by using the library of typical structures available in the Robot Millennium program. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

Four out of five load cases applied to the structure are displayed in the drawing below.

LOAD CASE 2

LOAD CASE 3

LOAD CASE 4

LOAD CASE 5

The following rules will apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in the chapter 2.1 of the manual) will

be displayed on the screen and the first icon (2D Frame Design

) should be selected.

NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.

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2.1 Structure Model Definition PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION Starts definition of structural axes. The Structural Axis dialog box appears on the screen.

On the X tab: Position: (0) Number of repetitions: (4) Distance: (18) Numbering: (1, 2, 3 ...)

Defines vertical axis parameters.

LMC on the Insert button

Vertical axes have been defined and will be presented in the Set of Created Axis field.

LMC on the Z tab

Starts definition of horizontal axis parameters.

On the Z tab: Position: (0) Number of Repetitions: (3) Distance: (9) Numbering: (A, B, C ...)

Defines horizontal axis parameters.

LMC on the Insert button

Horizontal axes have been defined and will be presented in the Set Of Created Axes field.

Apply, Close

Creates defined structural axes and closes the Structural Axes dialog box. Structural axes will be displayed on the screen, as on the figure below.

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2.1.1 Structure Bar Definition Opens the Sections dialog box. Opens the New Section dialog box. Selection of the I family, in the Section field selection of the (W 8x10) section Add

Defines a new section. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

LMC in the Section Type field, selection of the RC beam option, in the Label field enter B18x24 in fields b = (18) in., h = (24) in. Add, Close

Defines an RC beam section.

Close

Closes the Sections dialog box. Opens the Bars dialog box.

LMC on the Bar Type field and select RC Column LMC on the Section field and select the type: (C18x18)

Selects bar properties.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End field. (0,0) (0,9), Add (0,9) (0,18), Add

Defines the first two bars located on structural axis number 1.

RMC on any point in the viewer with the structure view and choose Select command from the context menu

Opens context menu and switches to selection mode. The mouse cursor changes its shape to “hand”.

CTRL+A

Selects all bars. (Remember to activate the View window first.)

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX,dZ), (18,0) LMC on the fields: Numbering Increment Nodes and Numbering Increment Elements (1) (1)

Defines the translation vector and numbering increment for nodes and bars.

LMC on the Number of Repetitions field (4)

Defines the number of repetitions for performed translation operations.

Execute, Close

Column translation; closes the Translation dialog box.

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LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select RC Beam LMC on the Section field and select (B18x24)

Starts definition of beams in the structure and selects their properties.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure.

(0,9) (18,9), Add (18,9) (36,9), Add (36,9) (54,9), Add (54,9) (72,9), Add

Defines the RC beam located on the structural axis B.

Close

Closes the Bars dialog box.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Sections tab Section - shape (turn on that box), Apply

Option allows for the display of section shapes for the defined structure bars. Bars presented on the figure below will be displayed on the screen.

2.1.2 Library Structure Definition View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box

Structure tab Turn on the Node Numbers option, Apply, OK Opens the Typical Structures dialog box and starts definition of a library structure.

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LMC

(double-click)

on

the

UPDATE, November 2005

icon

Selects a triangular truss of type 1. The Merge Structure dialog box appears and truss parameters can be defined.

LMC on the Length L field on the Dimensions tab (72)

Defines the truss length (it can also be defined graphically in the graphic viewer).

LMC on the Height H field (9)

Defines the truss height (it can also be defined graphically in the graphic viewer).

LMC on the Number of Fields field (12)

Defines the number of fields into which the truss will be divided.

LMC on the Sections tab; To all truss bars (Upper and Lower Chords, Diagonals, Posts) assign (W 8x10)

Assigns the section to the truss bars.

(first icon in the last row)

LMC on the Insert tab LMC on the Insertion Point field, select the node number 3 of the following coordinates (0,0,18)

Defines the truss beginning node.

Apply, OK

Locates the defined structure in the appropriate place and closes the Merge Structure dialog box. The defined structure is presented on the drawing below.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Structure tab Turn off the Node Numbers option Others tab Turn off the Structural Axis option, Apply, OK

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Geometry / Releases

Opens the Releases dialog box.

LMC on the Pinned-Fixed release type

Chooses the release type that will be assigned to a truss bar.

LMC on the Current selection field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the highest post of the truss (the bar between the nodes 9 and 29)

Selects the truss bar; ATTENTION: take note of the arrows that appear on the highlighted truss bar – while indicating the bar the arrows should be pointed up (the direction of the release is significant: at the first node the pinned connection remains, whereas at the second one – the fixed connection is defined)

Close

Closes the Releases dialog box.

2.1.3 Support Definition Opens the Supports dialog box. LMC on the Current Selection field on the Nodal tab (the cursor should be blinking in that field)

Selects structure nodes in which supports will be defined.

Switch to the graphic viewer by pressing the left mouse button; select all lower column nodes with the window

Selected nodes: 1to13by3 will be entered to the Current Selection field.

In the Supports dialog box select the fixed support icon (the support will be highlighted)

Selects the support type.

Apply, Close

Selected support type will be assigned to selected structure nodes, closes the Supports dialog box.

2.1.4 Load Case Definition Opens the Load Types dialog box. LMC on the New button

Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name DL1.

LMC on the Nature field (Live)

Selects the load nature: live.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button

Defines two live load cases with standard names LL1 and LL2.

LMC on the Nature field (Wind)

Selects the load case nature: wind.

LMC on the New button

Defines a wind load case with a standard name WIND1.

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LMC on the Nature field (Snow)

Selects the load case nature: snow.

LMC on the New button, Close

Defines a snow load case with a standard name SN1 and closes the Load Types dialog box.

2.1.5 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases Loads / Load Table

Opens a table for loads acting in defined load cases.

, place the table in the lower part of the screen in such a way so that it is adjusted to its width and the defined structure model is displayed.

Decreases the table size so that the load graphic definition is possible. (You can use Windows/Align Windows after the loads window is resized.)

Dead Load (direction “-Z”) automatically applied to all structure bars. LMC on the second field in the Case nd column, select the 2 load case LL1 from the list

Defines loads for the second load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform) load

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select all the concrete beams in the graphic viewer (bars 11to14)

Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "PZ=" column and enter the value: (-5)

Selects the direction and sign of the uniform load.

LMC on the next field in the Case rd column, select the 3 load case LL2 from the list

Defines loads for the third load case.

LMC on the Load Type column, select the (trapezoidal) load

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select graphically in the graphic viewer the first left span of the concrete beam (bar 11)

Selects bars to which the trapezoidal load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "PZ1=" column and enter the value: (-4) LMC on the X2 field and enter value (1.0) LMC on the field in the "PZ2=" column and enter the value: (-6)

Selects the direction and sign of the trapezoidal load

LMC on the next field in the Case th column, select the 4 load case WIND1 from the list

Defines loads for the fourth load case.

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LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform) load

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, Select graphically in the graphic viewer the left edge column (bars 1 and 2)

Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "PX=" column and enter the value: (1.0)

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.

LMC on the field in the Case column, th select the 5 load case SN1 from the list

Defines loads for the fifth load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select (nodal forces) as a load type

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select graphically in the graphic viewer the nodes on the upper truss chords (without the edge nodes) (nodes 24to34)

Selects nodes to which the nodal force load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "FZ=" column and enter the value: (-0.25)

Selects the direction and the load value.

Close the Load table

2.2 Structure Analysis Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box

Units and Formats / Other

Selects the option that enables defining a number of decimal places for selected quantities.

Increase of the number of decimal places for linear displacements to 4

Increases the number of decimal places for linear displacements to 4.

OK

Accepts assumed parameters Preferences dialog box

and

closes

the

Job

Starts calculations for the defined structure. LMC in the Robot program layout selection, Results / Results

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The RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium program opens. The screen will be divided into three parts (as shown in the drawing below): a graphic field containing the structure model, the Diagrams dialog box and a table with reaction values.

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2.3 Result Analysis LMC Reactions table.

Displays the results for the second load case.

Select 2: LL1 Turn on the My Moment option on the NTM tab in the Diagrams dialog box

Selects the bending moment My for presentation.

Apply

Displays a diagram of the bending moment for structure bars (see the drawing below). In a similar way, diagrams that exhibit other values available from the Diagrams dialog box can be displayed.

Turn off the My Moment option in the Diagrams dialog box, Apply Opens a table containing structure displacements.

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LMC on the Global Extremes tab in the Displacements table

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Displays the maximum and minimum displacements obtained in structure nodes (see the drawing below).

LMC on the Values tab RMC on the Displacements table

Calls up the context menu.

Table Columns

Selects the Table Columns option and opens the dialog box.

LMC on the General tab, select the Coordinates option, OK button

Two additional columns containing node coordinates appear.

Close the Displacements table

2.4 RC Beam Design with Torsion Considered NOTE: The code calculations are performed according to British code BS 8110. RMC on the graphic viewer and choose the Select option from the context menu; select all RC beams from the window

Selects the beams for design.

Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Beam Design

Runs a module that allows for concrete beam design. Data on the beam together with the static analysis results will be loaded to this module.

Simple Cases OK

Selects the Simple Cases option in the Load Selection dialog box.

LMC the Reinforcement Pattern and the Calculation Options fields and selection of the Standard options LMC on the Calculations button in the Calculation Option Set dialog box Analysis / Calculation Options

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Starts the concrete beam design and accepts the default values of the calculation options.

Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.

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On the General tab press the Advanced button and next, select the Torsion taken into account option, OK, OK

Opens the Advanced Options dialog box, includes a torsional moment in calculations. Closes the Advanced Options dialog box. Closes the Calculation Options dialog box.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Layout: RC Beams / Beam Results

Graphic and tabulated presentation of obtained results (cross section force diagrams for various limit states and diagrams of reinforcement area along the beam’s length).

RC Beams / Beam - Reinforcement

Graphic and tabulated presentation of reinforcement in the beam (see the drawing below).

Results / Drawings

Displays a working drawing of the first span of the designed beam (runs the FINAL DRAWINGS layout).

Beam - Reinforcement

Returns to the BEAM - REINFORCEMENT layout

Results / Calculation Note OK

Opens the Calculation Note dialog box where one can select the components of the calculation note and starts the Robot Millennium program editor for presentation of data and results for the beam.

Close the editor with the calculation note

2.5 RC Column Design NOTE: The code calculations are done according to British code BS 8110.

Structure Model / Start

Selects the START layout from the list of available layouts of the Robot Millennium program

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While in the graphical viewer RMC and choose the Select option; select with the window the outermost bottom left column (bar 1)

Selects the column that will undergo design

Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Column Design

Runs module that enables RC column design. Data on the column together with the static analysis results will be loaded to this module.

Simple cases, OK

Selects the Simple cases option in the Load Selection dialog box.

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculation Option Set dialog box

Runs RC column design and accepts the default values of the calculation options

LMC the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layout RC Columns / Column - Results

The screen presents surfaces (curves) of the interactions NM, My-Mz.

Open the context menu by means of RMC in the right graphical viewer, select the Governing case option

Opens the Intersection dialog box.

From the list of available combinations located on the left side of the dialog box select the first combination from the top

Presents the column section with the following elements marked on it: neutral axis, compressive and tensile zones together with the appropriate safety factors for the selected combination.

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Close

Closes the Intersection dialog box

LMC the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layout RC Columns / Column Reinforcement

Presents the obtained reinforcement in the column graphically and in the form of a table (see the drawing below)

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2.6 Design of RC Members Code BS 8110 The START layout is selected from among those provided by the Robot Millennium program

Structure model / Start Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Member Design / Calculations

The Calculations According to BS 8110 dialog box is opened

Introduce the list of bars 1to14 in the Calculations field (with the Design option active)

Selection of members that will undergo the design process

Introduce the list of the load cases (1to5) applied to the structure and used during its design into the Lists of cases field

Selection of all load cases

LMC the ULS option in the Design simple cases according to field

Selection of the limit state that will set the requirements to be verified during member design

For the Calculate option for beams assume the following parameters: in (11) points

Determination of the parameters of searching for the theoretical (required) area of reinforcement for the selected members of the structure

LMC the Calculate button

Calculations of the theoretical (required) area of reinforcement for the selected members of the structure and the adopted calculation parameters are started.

Close in the RC Member Calulations: Report dialog box

Display of a window containing calculation warnings and errors concerning member theoretical (required) reinforcement

Close the Calculations according to BS 8110 dialog box Results / Reinforcement RC Member Reinforcement

/

Opens the Results for required member reinforcement table in which calculation results of theoretical (required) reinforcement for selected RC member sections will be displayed

Close the Results for required member reinforcement table

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Concrete Slab

This example will demonstrate step-by-step how the user can define and analyze a simple slab with an opening. Data units: (m) and (kN). A slab with an opening will be generated and analyzed. The slab will consist of concrete elements. All the steps required will be presented. Three load cases will be defined. Five structure modes will also be found. The following rules will apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in the chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on the screen and the first icon in the second row (Plate Design) should be selected.

3.1 Structure Model Definition 3.1.1 Contour Definition PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

View / Grid / Grid Step Definition

Opens the Grid Step Definition dialog box.

Dx = Dy =1.0

Defines grid step on the screen (equal in both directions)

Apply, Close

Accepts the defined parameters and closes the Grid Step Definition dialog box. Selects polyline to define a rectangle.

LMC on Polyline option in Definition Method

Selects polyline to define a slab contour.

Using mouse select the following points in the graphical window: (-7, -5) (-7, 5) (7, 5) (7, -5) (-7, -5)

Defines a rectangle contour.

(-4, 2) (-4, 0) (-1, 0) (-1, 2) (-4, 2)

Defines a rectangle contour by entering four rectangle vertexes and the fifth point to make a closure. It models dimensions of an opening in the slab.

Close

Closes Polyline - contour dialog box.

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3.1.2 Mesh Definition Tools / Job Preferences / Meshing Options

Opens the window of the mesh options.

In the Meshing Type field select: User, LMC Modification button

Selects user defined meshing type.

LMC in Available Meshing Methods / Delaunay

Selects Delaunay’s option.

Mesh Generation/Division 1: (7)

Defines the size of the mesh size.

OK

Accepts changes in the Meshing Options dialog box.

OK

Accepts changes in the Job Preferences dialog box.

3.1.3 Slab Properties Opens window where the slab thickness will be defined.

Defines a new FE thickness. On the Homogenuous tab in the Th= field type the value (25)

Defines slab thickness.

In the Material: field select ( CONCR )

Selects CONCRETE.

Add, Close

Adds this new thickness: TH25 and closes the New thickness dialog box.

Close

Closes the FE Thickness dialog box.

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3.1.4 Opening Properties Selects Panels icon option to define the plate.

LMC Contour Type: Opening

Defines the opening contour.

LMC in Creation with/Internal Point: LMC at (-3, 1) in the View graphical window

Creates a contour for the hole. Select a point inside the opening by clicking inside the opening defined above, for example at (-3,1) point. And the contour appears on the opening.

LMC Contour Type: Panel

Defines the panel around the opening.

LMC Properties/Thickness: Select: TH25 LMC Properties / Reinforcement: Select: Direction X

Selects thickness type TH25 and reinforcement type.

LMC in Creation with / Internal Point: LMC at (0, 0) in the View graphical window

Creates a contour for the panel. Select a point inside the panel by clicking outside of the opening defined above but inside the panel rectangle, for example at (0,0) point. And the contour appears around the panel.

Close

Closes panel definition.

3.1.5 Support Definition

Define 4 additional nodes: no. 5: (-6, -4) no. 6. (-6, 4) no. 7 (6, 4) no. 8 (6, -4) Analysis / Generation

Calculation

Model

/

Generates a finite element mesh according to the adopted parameters of mesh generation Selects Supports icon option to define the supports for the slab.

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Defines a new support type Advanced on the Rigid tab

Opens the Support Definition – Advanced dialog box to define a support determined by means of dimensions of the column cross-section

Column

Selects the support type - column

Rectangular b = 25, h = 25

Defines the column type (rectangular) and dimensions of the column cross-section.

OK

Closes the Support Definition – Advanced dialog box

In the Label field enter Column25x25, set all the directions (UZ, RX, RY) as fixed

Specifies name of the defined support type

Add and Close

Adds the new support type (column25x25) to the list of available support types and closes the Support Definition dialog box

LMC on column25x25

Selects type of the support.

LMC on Current Selection / Point / Node LMC in the field LMC on points 5, 6, 7, 8

Selects the nodes at which supports will be defined – see the figure below

Apply, Close

Defines supports in the structure and closes the Supports dialog box

3.1.6 Load Case Definition Opens the Load Cases dialog box. LMC on the New button

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Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name DL1.

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LMC on the Nature field (Live)

Selects the load nature: live.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button, Close

Defines two live load cases with standard names LL1 and LL2 and closes Load cases dialog box.

3.1.7 Definition of Loads for Generated Cases LMC on LL1

Selects load case Live Load 1.

Selects Load Definition. Select the Surface Tab

Selects Uniform Planar Load on Contour.

Load Parameters, Z: (-0.5)

Defines the load intensity.

LMC Contour Definition

Defines a rectangle contour on which the load will be applied.

Define the following points (-7, 1.5) (-4, 1.5) (-4, 0) (-7, 0) LMC on Add button at the very bottom of the Uniform Planar Load dialog box LMC on the Apply To field (1)

Selects the panel.

LMC on Apply button LMC on LL2

Selects load case Live Load 2.

Select the Surface Tab

Selects Linear Load 2p.

Values: P1, P2 Z: (-0.8, -0.8)

Defines the load intensity (P1 and P2) on the two ends of the load line segment and their coordinates (A and B).

Point Coordinates A: (1, -5) B: (1, 5)

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LMC Add Closes the Load Definition dialog box

Close

3.1.8 Display of Generated Load Cases View / Projection / 3D xyz

Selects isometric view.

View / Display / Loads tab LMC Symbols option

Selects Symbols checkbox

View / Display / Finite Elements tab

Moves on to the Finite Elements tab in the Display dialog box

LMC on the options: Finite elements, Numbers and panel description

Switches off the options of structure element display

Apply, OK LMC on LL2

Selects load case Live Load 2

LMC on LL1

Selects load case Live Load 1

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3.2 Structure Analysis / Results (Maps on Panels Cuts) Starts calculations of the defned structure LMC in the Robot program layout selection, Results / Results - maps

Opens the RESULTS / RESULTS - MAPS layout of the Robot Millennium program.

LMC on LL1

Selects load case Live Load 1.

LMC on the displacements - u, w option in the Maps dialog box

Selection of the displacement to be presented

Go to the Parameters tab in the Maps dialog box and select the middle in the Layer selection field

Selection of the layer for displacements will be presented

which

the

determined

Apply

Go to the Detailed tab in the Maps dialog box and switch off the presentation of displacements for the plate, Apply Structure Model / Geometry

Select the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program

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Results / Panel Cuts

Opens the Panel Cuts dialog box that allows creating diagrams of internal forces and displacements in planar finite elements

LMC the Moments - M xx option on the Detailed tab

Selects the Mxx moment diagram for presentation

On the Definition tab in the Panel Cuts dialog box select the Parallel to axis -Y option, enter the coordinates: (1.00, -5.00) into the field below

Selects the method of cut plane definition

Move to the Parameters tab and afterwards, select the middle option in the Layer selection field

Selects the layer for which the displacements in a given cut will be presented

On the Diagrams tab select the following options: Horizontal in the Diagram descriptions field, fence in the Filling field and normal in the Diagram position field

Selects the manner of diagram presentation on structure cuts

Apply

Switches on presentation of displacements on the panel cuts (the drawing below). The drawing below presents the structure as defined so far. Using the option rotate the plate to view the diagram (which is initially shown under the plate).

Move to the Cuts tab and turn off display of the diagram in the defined cut (√ symbol will disappear)

Turns off display of the diagram on the cut through the slab.

Apply, Close

Turns off display of displacements in the panel cut and closes the Panel Cuts dialog box.

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3.3 Calculations of the Required (Theoretical) Reinforcement Area Code: BS 8110 LMC the field allowing one to select Robot program layouts and select: RC Slabs / Slabs - required reinforcement

The user goes to the layout of the Robot Millennium program allowing one to determine the theoretical (required) reinforcement area for the defined slab. The screen will be divided into three parts: the graphical viewer with the structure model and two dialog boxes: Plate and shell reinforcement and Reinforcements.

LMC on the ULS field in the List of cases panel and introduce 1to3 in the Plate and Shell Reinforcement dialog box

Calculation of the theoretical (required) reinforcement area will be carried out for the Ultimate Limit State with all the load cases applied to the slab considered.

LMC the Method field and select the analytical method

Selection of the analytical method of calculating the reinforcement area

Turn on the option: Reduction of forces (at supports or above columns)

If this option is turned on, it means that for slab elements supported at point (e.g. by means of the column support), values of moments and stresses near the supported points are substituted for the average value from the vicinity of these supports/columns

LMC the Calculate button in the Plate and shell reinforcement dialog box

Calculations of the theoretical (required) reinforcement area for the defined slab (panel no. 1) are started

Once the calculations are finished, LMC the Area A Y[-] option in the Reinforcements dialog box

Selection of the quantities to be presented

Go to the Scale tab and select the 256 colors option in the Color palette field

Selection of the color palette to be used during the presentation of reinforcement maps

LMC the Apply button in Reinforcements dialog box

Presentation of the reinforcement area for the selected area and the selected direction (the map of the reinforcement area is shown in the figure below)

the

Make the Area A Y[-] option inactive (the Reinforcements dialog box)

The reinforcement maps presentation is made inactive

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Opening the table presenting the results obtained from the calculations of the theoretical (required) reinforcement areas for the slab RMC while the cursor is positioned within the Reinforcement Areas table

Displays the context menu on the screen

Table Columns

Opens the Reinforcement Areas dialog box

Switch on two options in the Required reinforcement field: Spacing e X[-] Spacing e X[+]

Selects the quantities to be presented in the table

OK

Closes the Reinforcement Areas dialog box

Go to the Global extremes tab in the Reinforcement Areas table

Presentation of the global extremes on the surface and the reinforcement spacings obtained for the designed slab

Close the Reinforcement Areas table

3.4. Calculations of the Provided (Real) Reinforcement Area Code: BS 8110 LMC on the field for selection of layouts in the Robot program: Structure Model / Geometry

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Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program

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Select – by window selection – the whole plate (the plate becomes highlighted)

Selects the plate for which provided (real) reinforcement will be calculated. NOTE: if a model includes more panels, then these panels should be selected for which provided reinforcement is to be calculated.

Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Plate and Shell Design / Provided Reinforcement

Starts provided reinforcement calculations of the plate. Accept messages if any are displayed.

Activates display of the bottom reinforcement Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box Select the Bars option

On the General tab – selects the Bars option in the Reinforcement type field; it means that the generated plate reinforcement will be the reinforcement with the use of reinforcing bars

OK

Accepts the selection made and closes the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box

Calculations

Assumes standard calculation parameters and starts calculations of the plate provided reinforcement. Viewing calculation results – the drawing below shows results and the Punching tab in the Results dialog box.

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4. Examples of Structure Definitions (Extrude and Revolve Options) Chapter 4 contains a presentation of several short examples of modeling three-dimensional structures by means of extrude and revolve options. All the presented structures are defined as shells. The following rules will be applied during the presentation of these structures: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. In order to start defining a structure, one should run the Robot Millennium program (press the relevant icon or select the relevant command from the toolbar). After a while, there appears on screen the dialog box (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual), where one should select the second icon in the second row (Shell design).

4.1 Silo This example provides a definition of a silo, presented schematically on the drawing below. Data units: (m).

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STRUCTURE DEFINITION Silo Geometry OPERATION PERFORMED

DESCRIPTION

View / Projection / XY

Selection of work plane

View / Grid / Grid Step Definition

Opens the Grid Step Definition dialog box.

Dx = Dy =1.0

Defines grid step on a screen (equal in both directions)

Apply, Close

Accepts the defined parameters and closes the Grid Step Definition dialog box. Opening the Polyline - contour dialog box to define successive components of a contour

Select Contour option in the Definition method part of the dialog box Define the following square on the graphical viewer: side length: 2m, points: (-1,-1,0), (-1,1,0), (1,1,0), (1,1,0)

Definition of the square that will serve as the basis for modeling the silo

Close the Polyline - contour dialog box View / Projection / 3d xyz Select the Edit / Substructure modification / Object modification command from the menu

Opening the Objects: operations/modifications dialog box

LMC in the Object field and indicate with the cursor the square defined on the graphical viewer

Selection of the square (the number of the object defined in the Object field)

Press the Extrude button

Beginning of the definition of object modification

Press the Object parameters button

Definition of the parameters of extrusion

modification

Define the following extrusion parameters: II to axis Z, Length: (5) m Division number = (5) Inactive options: top, base

Extrusion parameters

Press the Apply button

Extrusion performed for the square according to the defined parameters

Press the Scaling button

Beginning of the definition of the operation of modifying the result of extruding the object

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Press the Operation parameters button

Definition of the parameters of modification to be applied to the extruded square

Define scaling parameters: Scale x=y= (3) Scale z= (1) Scale center (0,0,0)

Parameters of scaling to be performed on the operation of extrusion

Press the Apply button

The operation of scaling is applied to the product of extrusion of the square according to the defined parameters

Press the Extrude button

Beginning of object modification definition

Press the Object modification parameters button (if necessary to expand)

Definition of the parameters of extrusion

Define the following extrusion parameters: II to axis Z, Length: (10) m Number of divisions = (10) Inactive options: top, base

Extrusion parameters

Press the Apply button

Extrusion performed for the square according to the defined parameters

Close the Objects: operations / modifications dialog box Initial view Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness Select the default panel thickness: TH_30CONCR

Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular components of the silo

Write all in the Panels field

Selection of all silo elements

Press the Apply button

Application of the default thickness to all the elements of the silo

Close the FE Thickness dialog box

Support Structure Opening the Bars dialog box LMC in the Bar type field and select the type: RC Beam LMC in the Section field and select the type B50x70

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Selection of bar properties

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Define the following four bars: beam 1: begin. (-3,-3,5), end (3,-3,5) beam 2: begin. (3,-3,5), end (3,3,5) beam 3: begin. (3,3,5), end (-3,3,5) beam 4: begin. (-3,3,5), end (-3,-3,5)

Definition of RC beams

LMC in the Bar type field and select the type: Column LMC in the Section field and select the type W14x211 (if the section is absent on the list of available sections, open the New section dialog box by pressing the button and select the required section)

Selection of bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

Define the following four steel columns of the 10 m length: col.1: begin. (-3,-3,5), end (-3,-3,-5) col.2: begin. (3,-3,5), end (3,-3,-5) col.3: begin. (3,3,5), end (3,3,-5) col.4: begin. (-3,3,5), end (-3,3,-5)

Definition of steel columns

LMC in the Bar type field and select the type: Simple bar LMC in the Section field and select the type W14x211 (if the section is absent on the list of available sections, open the New section dialog box by pressing the button and select the required section)

Selection of bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

Define the following four beams: beam1:begin. (-3,-3,-1), end (3,-3,-1) beam2:begin. (3,-3,-1), end (3,3,-1) beam3:begin. (3,3,-1), end (-3,3,-1) beam4:begin. (-3,3,-1), end (-3,-3,-1)

Definition of steel spandrel beams

LMC in the Bar type field and select the type: Simple Bar LMC in the Section field and select the type L 4x4x0.25 (if the section is absent on the list of available sections, open the New section dialog box by pressing the button and select the required section)

Selection of bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

Define the following bracings: 1: begin. (-3,-3,5), end (3,-3,-1) 2: begin. (3,-3,5), end (-3,-3,-1)

Bracing definition

3: begin. (3,-3,5), end (3,3,-1) 4: begin. (3,3,5), end (3,-3,-1) Close the Bars dialog box

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Select bracing 1 and 2 Edit / Edit / Translate

Opening the dialog box used to define translation

Translation vector (0,6,0) Edit mode = Copy Drag = switched off, Execute Select bracing 3 and 4 Translation vector (-6,0,0) Edit mode = Copy Drag = switched off, Execute Close the Translation dialog box Opening the Supports dialog box LMC in the Current selection field on the Nodal tab

Selection of structure nodes where structure supports will be applied

Go to the graphical viewer; while pressing the left mouse button, select all bottom nodes of columns

You should see numbers of support nodes appearing in the Current selection field

Select the fixed support icon in the Supports dialog box (it will become highlighted), Apply

Selection of support type, the selected support type will be applied to the selected structure nodes

Close

Closing the Supports dialog box

Analysis / Generation

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Calculation

model

/

Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar finite elements)

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4.2 Cooler This example provides a definition of a shell structure (chimney cooler), presented schematically in the drawing below. Data units: (m).

OPERATION PERFORMED

DESCRIPTION

View / Projection / ZX

Selection of a work plane

Geometry / Objects / Arc

Opening the Arc dialog components of a contour

box

to

define

successive

Select the following arc definition method: beginning, end, middle Define the following arc on the graphical viewer: Begin. (-10,0,10) End (-10,0,-10) Middle (-7,0,0)

Define an arc

Close

Closing the Arc dialog box

CTRL + A

Selection of the defined arc object

Geometry / Objects / Revolve

Opening the Revolve dialog box

Define the rotation parameters: Axis: beginning (0,0,0) end (0,0,10) rotation angle (360) number of divisions: (36) Inactive options: top, base, new object

Rotation parameters

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Apply, Yes

Rotation of the object is performed, accepting the message about limitations of the Revolve function for revolutions by 360-degree angle

Close

Closing the Revolve dialog box

View / Projection / 3d xyz Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness Select the default panel thickness: TH_30CONCR

Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular components of the structure

Write all in the Panels field

Selection of all structure elements

Apply

Application of the default thickness to all the elements of the structure

Close the FE Thickness dialog box View / Display

Opening the Display dialog box for visualizing selected attributes

Select the Thickness option on the Finite Element tab Closing the Display dialog box for visualizing selected attributes

Apply, OK

Initial view Opening the Supports dialog box Select Line option in the Current selection group Select the fixed support icon in the Supports dialog box (the icon will be highlighted)

Selection of the support type

Indicate the bottom line (circle) of the structure

NOTE: To select the circle you have to find a place along its circumference in such a way it will get highlighted. If you have trouble finding this place, you should add labels by checking the “numbers and labels of edges” on the Finite Elements tab in the Display dialog box.

Close

Closing the Supports dialog box

Analysis / Generation

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Calculation

model

/

Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar finite elements)

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4.3 Pipeline This example provides a definition of shell structure (pipe), presented schematically in the drawing below. Data units: (m).

OPERATION PERFORMED

DESCRIPTION

View / Projection / ZX

Selection of the work plane

Geometry / Objects / Circle

Opening the components

Circle

dialog

box

to

define

contour

Select the Center - radius option in the Definition Method group of the dialog box In the graphical viewer, define a circle with the radius of 1 m and the center at the point (0,0,0)

Definition of a circle that will be the basis for creating the pipeline

Close the Circle dialog box

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View / Projection / 3d xyz Select the Edit / Substructure modification / Object modification command from the menu

Opening the dialog modifications

LMC in in the Object field and indicate the defined circle in the graphical viewer

Selection of the circle (the number of the object is introduced into the Object field)

Press the Extrude button

Beginning of the definition of object modification

Press the Object parameters button

Definition of the parameters of extrusion

modification

box

Objects

-

operations

/

Define the following parameters of extrusion: II to axis Y, length (20) m number of divisions (20) Inactive options: top, base

Extrusion parameters

Apply

Extrusion performed for the circle according to the defined parameters

Press the Revolve button

Opening the Revolve dialog box

Define the following parameters for revolving the object: axis beginning (2,20,0) end (2,20,1) rotation angle (-90) number of divisions (5) Inactive options: top, base

Rotation parameters

Apply

Rotation of the object is performed

Press the Extrude button

Beginning to define the parameters of extrusion

Define the following parameters of extrusion: II to axis X, length (2) m number of divisions (2) Inactive options: top, base

Extrusion parameters

Press the Apply button

Extrusion performed for the circle according to the defined parameters

Press the Revolve button

Opening the Revolve dialog box

Define the following parameters for revolving the object: axis beginning (4,24,0) end (4,24,1) rotation angle (90) number of divisions (5) Inactive options: top, base

Rotation parameters

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Apply

Rotation of the object is performed

Press the Extrude button

Beginning of the definition of object modification

Define the following parameters of extrusion: II to axis Y, length (10) m number of divisions (10) Inactive options: top, base

Extrusion parameters

Apply

Extrusion performed for the circle according to the defined parameters

Close Initial view Analysis / Generation

Calculation

model

/

Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar finite elements)

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4.4 Axisymmetrical Structures This example provides a definition of shell structure, presented schematically in the drawing below. Data units: (m).

OPERATION PERFORMED

DESCRIPTION

View / Projection / ZX

Selection of a work plane

Geometry / Objects / Arc

Opening the Arc dialog components of a contour

box

to

define

successive

Select the following arc definition method: beginning, end, middle Define the following arc in the graphical viewer: Begin (0,0,10) End (0,0,-10) Middle (-5,0,0) Close

Closing the Arc dialog box

CTRL + A

Selection of the defined arc object

Geometry / Objects / Revolve

Opening the Revolve dialog box

Define the rotation parameters: Axis: beginning (0,0,0) end (-5,0,0) rotation angle (180) number of divisions (18) Inactive options: top, base, new object

Rotation parameters

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Apply

Rotation of the object is performed

Close

Closing the Revolve dialog box

View / Projection / 3D xyz Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness Select the default panel thickness: TH_30CONCR

Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular components of the structure

Write all in the Panels field

Selection of all structure elements

Apply

Application of the default thickness to all the elements of the structure

Close the FE Thickness dialog box View / Display

Opening the Display dialog box for visualizing selected attributes

Select the Thickness option on the Finite Elements tab Closing the Display dialog box for visualizing selected attributes

Apply, OK

Analysis / Generation

Calculation

model

/

Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar finite elements)

This example provides a definition of shell structure, presented schematically in the drawing below. Data units: (m).

OPERATION PERFORMED View / Projection / ZX

DESCRIPTION Selection of the work plane Opening the Polyline - contour dialog box to define successive components of a contour

Select Line option in the Definition method part of the dialog box

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Define two lines in the graphical viewer: line 1: beginning (-10,0,0) end (-10,0,10) line 2: beginning (-15,0,0) end (-15,0,5)

Definition of two lines

Close

Closing the Polyline - contour dialog box

Geometry / Objects / Arc

Opening the Arc dialog components of a contour

box

to

define

successive

Select the following arc definition method: center, begin, end Define the following two arcs in the graphical viewer: Arc 1 with radius = 5 Center (-10,0,5) Begin. (-15,0,5) End (-10,0,10) Arc 2 with radius = 10 Center (0,0,10) Begin. (-10,0,10) End (0,0,20) Close

Closing the Arc dialog box

CTRL + A

Selection of the defined arc object

Geometry / Objects / Revolve

Opening the Revolve dialog box

Define the rotation parameters: Axis: beginning (0,0,10) end (0,0,20) rotation angle (360) number of divisions (36) Inactive options: top, base, new object

Rotation parameters

Apply

Rotation of the object is performed

Close

Closing the Revolve dialog box

View / Projection / 3d xyz Opening the dialog box used for defining thickness Select the default panel thickness: TH_30CONCR

Selection of the thickness that will be applied to particular components of the structure

Write all in the Panels field

Selection of all structure elements

Apply

Application of the default thickness to all the elements of the structure

Close the FE Thickness dialog box

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Initial view View / Display

Opening the Display dialog box for visualizing selected attributes

Select the Thickness option on the FE tab Closing the Display dialog box for visualizing selected attributes

Apply, OK

Opening the Supports dialog box Select Line option in the Current selection group Select the fixed support icon in the Supports dialog box (the icon will be highlighted)

Selection of the support type

Point to the bottom line (circle) of the structure and select it

NOTE: To select the circle you have to find a place along its circumference in such a way it will get highlighted. If you have trouble finding this place, you should add labels by checking the “numbers and labels of edges” on the Finite Elements tab in the Display dialog box.

Close

Closing the Supports dialog box

Analysis / Generation

Calculation

model

/

Creation of the structure calculation model (mesh of planar finite elements)

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Design of a 2D Frame

The following is an example of a definition, analysis and design of a simple, 2D steel frame presented in the drawing below. Data units: (m) and (kN).

Three load cases will be applied to the structure (self-weight and two cases of live loads presented in the drawing below). Moreover, (10) load cases generated automatically for snow/wind loads will be applied to the structure.

CASE 2

CASE 3

The following rules will be applied during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. In order to start defining a structure, one should run the Robot Millennium program (press the relevant icon or select the relevant command from the toolbar). After a while, there appears on screen the dialog box (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual), where one should select the second icon in the first row (2D frame). NOTE:

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The European (French) section database (CATPRO) and the French snow/wind code have been used in this example.

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5.1 Structure Model Definition OPERATION PERFORMED

Structure model / Bars

DESCRIPTION The BARS layout should be selected from those available in the Robot Millennium program

LMC in the Bar type field and select the Column type LMC in the Section field and select the HEA 300 type (if the section is absent from the list of available sections, one should open the New section dialog box by pressing the button and select the required section)

Definition of bar properties. The section from the French section database (CATPRO) has been used in this example.

LMC in the Beginning field (the bacground will be highlighted in green)

Beginning of the definition of structure bars (columns of the structure)

column 1: (0,0) (0,5) (0,5) (0,10) (0,10) (0,15) column 2: (8,0) (8,5) column 3: (16,0) (16,5) (16,5) (16,10) (16,10) (16,15) column 4: (24,0) (24,5) (24,5) (24,8)

Definition of columns in the frame

LMC in the Bar type field and select the Beam type. LMC in the Section field and select the type HEA 300

Beginning of the definition of structure beams and definition of their properties. The section from the French section database (CATPRO) has been used in this example.

LMC in the Beginning field (the background will be highlighted in green)

Beginning of the definition of structure beams

beam 1: (0,5) (8,5) (8,5) (16,5) (16,5) (24,5) beam 2: (0,10) (16,10) beam 3: (16,10) (24,8) beam 4: (0,15) (16,15)

Definition of beams in the frame

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LMC in the field for selecting layouts in the Robot Millennium program and select Structure model / Start

UPDATE, November 2005

Selection of the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program

Initial view Opening the Supports dialog box LMC on the Current selection field on the Nodal tab

Selection of structure nodes where supports will be applied

Go to the graphical viewer; while pressing the left mouse button, select all the bottom nodes of columns

The selected nodes 1, 5, 7 and 11 will be introduced into the Actual selection field

Select the icon denoting a fixed support in the Supports dialog box (it will get highlighted)

Selection of support type

Apply, Close

The selected support type will be applied to the selected nodes of the structure

5.2 Definition of Load Cases and Loads Opening the Load Types dialog box LMC on the New button

Definition of a case with the dead nature (self-weight) and the standard label DL1

LMC the Nature field (Live)

Selection of the nature of load case: live

LMC the New button LMC the New button

Definition of two load cases with the live nature and standard labels LL1 and LL2

Close

Closing the Load types dialog box

Loads / Load Table

Opening the table for defining loads operating in the defined load cases

Press , to place the table in the bottom part of the screen, so that it takes the entire width of the viewer and allows the model of the defined structure to be visible

Reducing the table size in order to make the graphical load definition possible

LMC the second cell in the CASE column, select the 2. load case: LL1

Definition of loads operating in the second load case

Continuing in the same row LMC the cell in the LOAD TYPE column, selection of the uniform load

Selection of load type

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LMC the cell in the LIST column, graphical selection in the viewer of the beam 1 (bars 10to12)

Selection of bars to which the uniform load will be applied

LMC the cell in the "pz=" column and enter the (-20) value

Selection of the direction and value of the uniform load

LMC the third cell in the CASE column, select Load case 3 - LL2

Definition of loads operating in the third load case

LMC the cell in the LOAD TYPE column, select the uniform load

Selection of load type

LMC the cell in the LIST column, select graphically the beam 2 (bar 13)

Selection of bars to which the uniform load will be applied

LMC the cell in the "pz=" column and enter the (-14) value

Selection of the direction and value of the uniform load

Close the table of loads

5.3 Definition of Snow/Wind Loads French code: NV65/N84 Mod.96 Loads / Special loads / Wind and Snow 2D/3D

Opening of the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box

Press the Auto button; inactive options: without parapets with base not on ground isolated roofs

Automatic generation of the structure envelope for the generation of snow/wind loads (in the Envelope field the program introduces the following node numbers: 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 9, 13, 12, 11) and definition of basic parameters for the structure envelope

Define the following parameters: Total depth = (60) Bay spacing = (10) active options: wind snow

Definition of the basic parameters of snow/wind loads

Press the Parameters button

Opening the additional dialog box (Snow/|wind Loads), where one can define detailed parameters

Define the parameters of snow/wind load: Global parameters tab: Departament: Alpes-Maritimes altitude above the sea level: (200) structure height: (15) m reference level: (0.8) m rise of roof: automatic

Definition of parameters for snow/wind loads

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Wind tab: Site: Normal Type: Normal Wind pressure: automatic Structure dimension automatic inactive options in the actions group

UPDATE, November 2005

Definition of parameters for snow/wind loads

effect: Specific

Snow tab: Type: Normal and accidental Snow pressure: automatic for normal and extreme active option: Snow redistribution inactive other options in the Snow gathering field

Definition of parameters for snow/wind loads

Generate

Pressing the button results in starting the generation of snow and wind loads with the accepted parameters. The calculation note will appear on screen. It will present the parameters of snow/wind laod cases

Close editor with the calculation note Close the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box

5.4 Structure Analysis Calculations of the defined structure are started. Once they are completed, the upper bar of the Robot program will display the message: Results (FEM) - available.

5.5 Detailed Analysis Select beam 1 in the graphical viewer (bars 10,11,12) LMC the Robot Millennium program layout selection: Results / Detailed analysis

Detailed analysis of structure bars is commenced. The monitor screen is divided into two parts: the graphical viewer presenting the structure model and the Detailed analysis dialog box

Select the second load case

In the Detailed analysis dialog box leave the option Open a new window switched off, on the NTM tab select the MY Moments option

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Selection of the quantities to be presented for the selected beam

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Apply

An additional graphical viewer appears on screen. It consists of two parts: a graphical presentation of information (diagrams, loads, bar sections) for selected bars and a table presenting numerical results obtained for selected bars

In the Detailed analysis dialog box select the following options: Select the maximum stress Smax on the Stresses tab Select Characteristic points on the Division points tab, LMC in Refresh

Selection of the quantities to be presented for the selected beam

Apply

Adds new quantities to be presented for the selected beam

Select the Global extremes tab in the table

Activates presentation of global extremes obtained for the selected beam (see figure below).

Exit

Closing the viewer presenting the detailed analysis of the selected beam

5.6 Structure Design Eurocode 3 LMC the Robot Millennium program layout selection: Structure design / Steel/Aluminum design

Design of steel structure members is commenced. The monitor screen is divided into three parts: the graphical viewer, the Definitions dialog box and the Calculations dialog box

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LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Definition of member groups is commenced

Define the first group with the following parameters: Number: 1 Name: columns Member list: 1to9 Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Definition of the first group consisting of all the columns in the structure

Save

Saving the parameters of the first member group

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Definition of the second group

Define the second group with the following parameters: Number: 2 Name: beams Member list: 10to15 Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Definition of the first group consisting of all the beams in the structure

Save

Saving the parameters of the first member group

LMC the List button in the Code group design line in the Calculations dialog box

Going to the Calculations dialog box and opening the Code group selection dialog box

LMC the All button (in the field above the Previous button, there will appear the list: 1to2), Close

Selection of the member groups to be designed

LMC the Load case selection button (Calculations dialog box)

Opening the Load case selection dialog box

LMC the field above the Previous button; there will appear the list: 1to3, Close

Selection of the first three load cases

Activate the option: Optimization and Limit state: Ultimate

Group design will use the optimization procedures (appropriate sections with respect to their weight); the ultimate limit state will be checked

LMC the Calculations button

Design of the selected member groups is commenced; there appears the Short results dialog box on screen

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LMC the Change all button in the Code group design dialog box shown above; accept the warning about the possible change of the result status to ‘not available’

Change of the currenly used profiles in the members belonging to both member groups to the calculated sections (for columns: from HEA 300 to HEA 240, for beams: from HEA 300 to HEA 500). Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of Robot will display the following message: Results (FEM) - out of date.

Close

Closing the Code group design dialog box Recalculation of the structure with the changed member sections. Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of Robot will display the following message: Results (FEM) available.

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculations dialog box

Re-design of the selected member groups in the structure (1,2) with the optimization options active; there will appear the Short results viewer

LMC the Change all button in the Code group design dialog box; accept the warning about the possible change of the result status to ‘not available’

Change of the currenly used profiles in the members belonging to both member groups to the calculated sections. Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of Robot will display the following message: Results (FEM) out of date.

Close

Closing the Code group design dialog box Recalculation of the structure with the changed member sections. Once the sections are changed, the upper bar of Robot will display the following message: Results (FEM) available.

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculations dialog box

Re-design of the selected member groups in the structure (1,2) with the optimization options active; there will appear the Short results viewer shown below. When the sections do not change during group design one can say the calculated sections are the optimal sections for designing member groups.

Close

Closing the Code group design dialog box

LMC in the Member verification field in the Calculations dialog box and enter there: (1to15)

Selection of members to be verified

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LMC the Load case list field in the Calculations dialog box and enter there: (1to3)

Selection of all load cases

LMC the Calculations button

Verification of the selected structure members is started (the verification is performed to obtain the results for particular structure members; however, it is not necessary); there will appear the Short results viewer

Close

Closing the Member verification dialog box

5.7 Global Analysis LMC the Robot Millennium program layout selection: Structure Model / Start

Selection of the initial Robot Millennium layout.

Results / Global analysis - bars

Beginning of the global analysis of all the bars in the structure. An additional graphical viewer appears. It consists of two parts: the graphical presentation of information and the table presenting the numerical results

RMC while the cursor is located in the additional graphical viewer

A context menu appears on screen

Table Columns

Selection of this option in the context menu opens the Parameters of presentation windows dialog box

Stresses tab: activate the Normal option Design tab: activate the Ratio option

Selection of quantites for which global analysis will be presented

LMC the OK button

The selection is accepted

LMC the Upper limit in the table and enter the value 1.0

The upper value of the ratio is determined

RMC while the cursor is located in the additional graphical viewer

A context menu appears on screen

Select the Constant display of limit values option

The values of limits are presented with horizontal lines in the graphical viewer of global analysis (see below).

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Close the graphical viewer with global analysis presented

5.8 Design of Steel Connections Code: Eurocode 3 LMC the field of the Robot Millennium program layout selection Structure design / Connections

Design of steel connections in a structure starts. The screen will be divided into two parts: the Object Inspector dialog box (Steel Connections) and the graphical viewer; at the bottom of the graphical viewer there are three tabs: Scheme, 3D View and Structure.

Move on to the Structure tab; select the middle bar in the outmost left column and the middle beam – RMC in the graphical viewer presenting the structure, choose Select in the context menu while pressing the CTRL button, click the left mouse button on the mentioned bars

Selection of bars for which the connection will be verified. The selected bars are pointed out with arrows in the figure below.

Connections / New Connection for Selected Bars

A connection is defined between the selected bars; the Connection definition dialog box starts to display several tabs. They allow modifying individual parameters of the connection.

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Select the Welds option on the Sections tab in the Connection definition dialog box, Apply

Selection of a type of a defined steel connection

Connections / Calculations

Opening of the Connection calculations dialog box

LMC the List field in the Load cases field

Definition of load cases considered during the connection verification

Enter here (1to3)

Selection of all the load cases

LMC the Calculations button

Connection verification starts; short results are presented in the Object Inspector dialog box and a detailed calculation note is displayed on the Results tab (this tab is accessible only after calculations of the connection are performed).

Selection of the extreme left support node with the column

Selection of bars for which the connection will be verified (concrete base of a column)

Connections / New Connection for Selected Bars Connections / Calculations

A connection is defined between the selected bars. The dialog box starts to display several tabs. Opening of the Connection calculations dialog box

LMC the List field in the Load cases field

Definition of load cases considered during the connection verification

Enter here (1to3)

Selection of all the load cases

LMC the Calculations button

Connection verification starts; short results are presented in the Object Inspector dialog box and a detailed calculation note is displayed on the Results tab (this tab is accessible only after calculations of the connection are performed).

5.9 Printout Composition LMC the field of the Robot Millennium program layout selection Structure Model / Start

Selection of the initial Robot Millennium program layout

File / Printout composition

Opening the Printout composition - Wizard dialog box, where one can define the shape of the printout for the currently designed structure

LMC the Simplified printout tab

Go to the Simplified printout tab

Activate the options (symbol ): Quantity survey and Combinations

Data concerning quantity survey and combinations will not be included in the printout

Select the following data from the available lists: Reactions - global extremes Displacements - envelope Forces - values Stresses - envelope

Selection of the data to be presented for the results of structure calculations

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LMC the Save template button

Pressing this button results in going to the Templates tab in the Printout composition - Wizard dialog box and including the selected simplified printout elements in the right panel.

LMC New button on the Templates tab

Definition of a new user’s template

In the left panel, there will appear an additional line where one should write the name of the new template, e.g. My template and press the ENTER button.

Saving the user’s template

LMC the Standard tab

Going to the Standard tab

Highlight the option in the left panel: Member group design

Selection of elements for prinout composition

LMC the Add button

Going to the selected option in the right panel

LMC the Preview button

Presentation of the print preview of the defined printout for the designed structure

Close

Closing the print preview viewer

Close

Closing the Printout composition - Wizard dialog box

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Definition of Moving Loads for a 2D Frame

This example presents the definition, analysis and design of a simple 2D frame (see the figure below), for which a moving load case is defined. Units: (m) and (kN).

Three load cases will be applied to the structure (self-weight and two load cases: wind and snow, shown in the figure below). Moreover, a moving load case will be applied to the structure.

LOAD CASE 2

LOAD CASE 3

MOVING LOAD CASE The following rules will apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. In order to start defining a structure, one should run the Robot Millennium program (press the relevant icon or select the relevant command from the toolbar). After a while, there appears on screen

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the dialog box (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual), where one should select the first icon in the

first row (2D frame

).

NOTE: The European (French) section database (CATPRO) is used in the example.

6.1 Definition of the Structure Model OPERATION PERFORMED

DESCRIPTION Starts the definition of structure axes. The Structural axis dialog box appears on screen.

In the X tab: Position: {0} Number of repetitions: {4} Distance: {3} Numbering: A, B, C ...

Definition of the parameters of vertical structural axes.

LMC the Insert button

Vertical axes have been defined and introduced into the Set of defined axes field.

LMC in the Z tab

Starts the definition of the parameters of horizontal structural axes.

In the Z tab: enter the following coordinates of the successive axes: {0}, Insert {3}, Insert {5}, Insert {6.5}, Insert Numbering: 1, 2, 3 ...

Defines the parameters of horizontal structural axes.

Apply, Close

Creates the defined structural axes and closes the Structural axis dialog box.

6.1.1 Definition of Structure Bars Opens the Sections dialog box Opens the New sections dialog box Select the I-section group in the Section field and select the following sections: HEA 200, HEA 260 and IPE 200 Add, Close

Defines a new section and closes the New sections dialog box

Close

Closes the Sections dialog box

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Opens the Bars dialog box LMC in the BAR TYPE field: Column LMC in the SECTION field and select the section type: HEA 260

Selects bar properties

LMC in the Beginning field (color of a field background changes to green)

Starts defining bars in the structure (columns of the structure)

Column 1 - between the points A1A3, with the following coordinates: (0,0) (0,5)

Defines structure columns. The figure below presents the structure created up to this moment.

Column 2 - between the points E1E3, with the following coordinates: (12,0) (12,5) Column 3 – between the points C1C2, with the following coordinates: (6,0) (6,3) Closes the Bars dialog box

Close

6.1.2 Definition of Library Structures (a Roof and an Overhead Traveling Crane Beam) Opens the Typical structures dialog box and starts defining a library structure (roof).

LMC (twice) the icon (1st icon in the last row)

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Selects the triangular truss of type 1. On screen, there appears the Merge structure dialog box where one may define truss parameters

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In the Dimensions tab LMC the Length L field {12}

Defines truss length (one may also define it graphically in the graphical viewer)

LMC the Height H field {1.5}

Defines truss height (one may also define it graphically in the graphical viewer)

LMC in the Number of fields field {8}

Defines the number of fields into which the truss will be divided

LMC in the Insert tab LMC in the Insertion point field select point A3 with the following coordinates (0,0,5)

Defines the insertion node for the truss

Apply, OK

Creates the defined structure in the indicated place within the structure and closes the Merge structure dialog box

Geometry / Releases

Opens the Releases dialog box

LMC on the release type: PinnedFixed

Selects the release type to be assigned to the truss bar

LMC on the Current selection field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the highest truss post (in the roof ridge)

Selects the truss bar; ATTENTION: take note of the arrows that appear on the highlighted truss bar – while indicating the bar the arrows should be pointed up (the direction of the release is significant: at the first node the pinned connection remains, whereas at the second one – the fixed connection is defined)

Close

Closes the Releases dialog box Reopens the Typical structures dialog box and starts defining a library structure (moving-crane beam).

LMC

(twice)

in

the

icon

Selects the rectangular truss of type 3. On screen, there appears the Merge structure dialog box where one may define truss parameters

On the Dimensions tab LMC the Length L field {12}

Defines truss length (one may also define it graphically in the graphical viewer)

LMC the Height H field {1.0}

Defines truss height (one may also define it graphically in the graphical viewer)

LMC in the Number of fields field {8}

Defines the number of fields into which the truss will be divided

LMC in the Insert tab LMC in the Insertion point field select the point with the following coordinates (0,0,2)

Defines the insertion node for the truss

Apply, OK

Creates the defined structure in the indicated place within the structure and closes the Merge structure dialog box

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Opens the Sections dialog box LMC in the Lines/Bars field, select all bars of both trusses

Selects truss bars

LMC in the IPE 200 section

Selects the section that will be applied to selected bars

Apply, accept the material change to the default one

Applies section IPE 200 to all truss bars

LMC in the Lines/Bars field, select the upper chord of the moving-crane truss

Selects bars (bar No. 8)

LMC in the HEA 200 section

Selects the section that will be applied to selected bars

Apply, Close

Applies section HEA 200 to the truss bars and closes the Sections dialog box

Select the side posts of the movingcrane truss and the central post (see the figure) - the bars become highlighted (bars 108, 112 and 116) Press the Delete button on the keyboard

Deletes the selected structure bars

6.1.3 Support Definition Opens the Supports dialog box LMC in the Current selection field on the Nodal tab

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Selects structure nodes where supports will be applied

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Go to the graphical viewer; while holding the left mouse button pressed, select with the window all the lower nodes of the columns (the points located at the level of structural axis 1)

The selected nodes (1 3 5) will be inserted in the Current selection field.

In the Supports dialog box, select the icon referring to the fixed support (it will be highlighted)

Selects the support type

Apply

The selected support type will be applied to the selected structure nodes.

Close

Closes the Supports dialog box

6.1.4 Definition of Structure Loads LMC in the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure model / Loads

Selects the Robot Millennium layout that allows one to define structure loads

LMC in the New button in the Load types dialog box

Defines the following load case: nature: dead (self-weight) standard name: DL1

LMC in the Nature field: Wind

Selects load case nature: wind

LMC in the New button

Defines the following load case: nature: wind standard name: WIND1

LMC in the Nature field Snow

Selects load case nature: snow

LMC in the New button

Defines the following load case: nature: snow standard name: SN1 The self-weight was applied automatically to all structure bars in the first row (direction "-Z”)

LMC the second field in the CASE column and select 2nd load case: WIND1

Defines loads operating for the second load case

LMC the field in the LOAD TYPE column and select the uniform load

Selects load type

LMC the field in the LIST column and select graphically in the graphical viewer the left structure column

Selects the bar to which the program will apply the load with nodal forces (bar 1)

LMC the field in the "px=" column and type the value 5.0

Selects the direction and value of the load

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LMC the third field in the CASE column, select 3rd load case: SN1

Defines loads operating for the third load case

LMC the field in the LOAD TYPE column and select the uniform load

Selects load type

LMC the field in the LIST column and select graphically in the graphical viewer the upper chords of the roof truss

Selects the bar to which the program will apply the uniform load (bars 5 and 6)

LMC the field in the "pz=" column and enter the value: -3.0

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load

LMC in the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout

6.1.5 Definition of a Moving Load Applied to the Structure Tools / Job Preferences LMC the Databases database option

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box /

Vehicle

Selects the option from the tree in the left part of the dialog box Pressing the Create a new database icon results in opening the New moving load dialog box

Type: in the Database field: USER in the Database name field: User-defined database Units: length - (m) force - (kN)

Defines a user database

Create

Closes the New moving load dialog box

OK

Closes the Job Preferences dialog box

Loads / Special loads / Moving

Opens the Moving loads dialog box Opens the Moving loads dialog box and starts defining a new vehicle

On the Symmetric vehicles tab LMC on the New button

Defines a new vehicle

Type the vehicle name: Moving crane, OK

Defines the name of the new vehicle and closes the New vehicle dialog box

LMC the first line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines the operating forces

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type

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F = 30, X = -1.2, S = 0

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force

LMC the next line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines the operating forces

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type

F = 30, X = 0.0, S = 0

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force

LMC the next line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines the operating forces

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type

F = 30, X = 1.4, S = 0

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force. The Moving loads dialog box is presented below.

LMC the Save to database button

Opens the Moving load databases dialog box

OK in the Moving load databases dialog box

Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database

Add, Close

Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and closes the Moving loads dialog box

In the Name field, type the name of the moving load (case 4): moving crane load

Defines the name of the moving load

LMC the Define button

Starts the definition of the route of the Moving Crane vehicle: the Polyline - contour dialog box is opened, with the Polyline option active.

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Define two points determining the route of the vehicle: beginning (0,3) end (12,3)

Defines the vehicle route

Apply, Close

Closes the Polyline - contour dialog box

LMC the Step field {1} Assume the default value of direction (0,0,-1), which means that the load will operate in the Z direction and its sense will be opposite with respect to the sense of the Z axis

Defines the step of position change of the moving load and the direction of load application.

LMC the Selection option located in the Application plane field

Selects the plane of load application

{8}

Selects the upper chord of the moving-crane truss (bar no. 8)

LMC the Parameters button

Opens the Route parameters dialog box

LMC the field for factors: Coef. LR and coef. LL and type the value 0.1

Defines the factors for the forces operating along the vehicle movement route. It generates the forces originating in vehicle braking, whose value equals 0.1*F

Switch on the following options: Vehicle position limit – route beginning Vehicle position limit – route end

Switching these options on assures that the forces defining the moving crane load will not be positioned off the defined structure model.

OK

Closes the Route parameters dialog box

Apply, Close

Generates the moving load case according to the adopted parameters and closes the Moving loads dialog box.

6.2 Structure Analysis Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box

Structure Analysis

Selects the Structure Analysis option from the tree in the dialog box

Method of Solving the System of Equations: Iterative

Selects the method of solving the equation system for the defined structure

OK

Accepts assumed parameters Preferences dialog box

and

closes

the

Job

Starts calculations of the defined structure. Once the calculations are completed, the title bar of the viewer will present the following information: Finite Element Results available.

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6.3 Presentation of the Vehicle and the Moving Load Case View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box

The Loads tab: switch on the Moving loads - vehicle option, OK

Presents the defined vehicle on the structure

Select load case 4 (moving-crane load)

Select 4: moving-crane load Loads / Select case component

Opens the Load component dialog box

Select: Current component 4

Select component 4 of the moving load case

LMC the Animation button

Opens the Animation dialog box

LMC the Start button

Starts the animation of the moving load over the structure; the vehicle will move along the defined route.

Stop (LMC the button) and close the animation toolbar Close

Stops the vehicle animation

Closes the Load component dialog box

6.4 Result Analysis LMC the field for selecting Robot Millennium layout Results / Results

The RESULTS Robot Millennium layout opens. The monitor screen will be divided into tree parts: the graphical viewer containing the structure model; the Diagrams dialog box and the table presenting the values of reactions. NOTE: The table presents additional moving load cases (marked with symbols “+” and “-“) determining the value of the upper and lower envelope, respectively. Selects load case 4 (moving crane load).

Select: 4 moving load Switch on the My Moment option in the Diagrams dialog box

Selects the presentation of the bending moment in the structure for the selected moving load case.

Select the Deformation tab in the Diagrams dialog box switch on the Deformation option

Selects the presentation of the deformation in the structure for the selected moving load case.

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Apply

Presents the bending moment diagram and deformation diagram for the structure. Similarly, one can present the diagrams of other quantities available in the Diagrams dialog box.

Loads / Select case component

Opens the Case component dialog box

LMC the Animation button

Opens the Animation dialog box

LMC the Start button

Starts recording the animation of the bending moment and deformation for the structure

Stop (LMC the button) and close the animation toolbar Close

Stops recording the animation

Closes the Load component dialog box

Switch off the My Moment option in the Diagrams dialog box Select the Deformation tab in the Diagrams dialog box switch off the Deformation option, Apply

6.5 Influence Lines LMC in the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure model / Start

Goes to the START layout of the Robot Millennium program.

Results / Advanced / Influence line

Opens the Influence lines dialog box

On the NTM tab of the Influence lines dialog box, switch on the two options: My and Fz

Selects for presentation: the bending moment and the shear force for the moving load case

LMC in the Element field and type {8}

Selects the bar for which the program will present influence lines. The point position (equal 0.5) means that the influence line will be created for the point located in the middle of the bar length.

Apply

Opens an additional window presenting the influence lines of the selected quantities (see the figure below).

In the Nodes tab of the Influence lines dialog box, switch on the two options: Ux and Uz

Selects the presentation of nodal displacements for the moving load case.

LMC in the Node field and type {2}

Selects the node for which the program will present influence lines.

Switch on the Open in a new window option

The diagrams of influence lines for the node no. 2 will be presented in a new window.

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Apply

Opens an additional window where the influence lines of the selected quantities will be presented.

RMC in the Influence lines dialog box where the influence lines are presented for node 2

Opens the context menu

Add coordinates

If the option is selected, the table located under the diagrams of influence lines will display additional columns containing the coordinates of the successive structure points.

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3D Workshop with a Moving Crane

This example presents definition, analysis and design of a simple steel workshop illustrated in the figure below. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

Five load cases have been assigned to structure and three of them are shown in the drawings below.

LOAD CASE 2

LOAD CASE 4

LOAD CASE 5

The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window will be displayed on the screen and the icon

(Frame 3D Design), the last but one in the first row, should be selected. NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.

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7.1 Definition of the Structure Model Definition of Structure Bars PERFORMED OPERATION

Structure Model/Bars

DESCRIPTION Selects the BARS layout from the list of the available Robot Millennium layouts.

LMC on the Bar Type field and select Column LMC on the Section field and select (W 21x101)

Selects bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the W 21x101 section is not available on the list, one should select the STRUCTURE MODEL / SECTION and MATERIALS layout, press the New icon in the Sections dialog box and add the section to the list of active sections.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure column).

Enter the following coordinates in the Beginning and End field: (-26,0,0) (-26,0,22.5), Add (-26,0,22.5) (-26,0,45), Add

Defines a column of the structure.

LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select Beam LMC on the Section field and select: (W 16x40)

Starts definition of a beam and selects its properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the W16x40 section is not available on the list, one should follow the above procedure.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of a beam in the structure.

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End field: (-26,0,32) (-20,0,32), Add

Defines a beam.

LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select Simple bar LMC on the Section field and select C 15x50

Starts definition of a simple bar and selects its properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of a simple bar in the structure.

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End field: (-26,0,26) (-20,0,32), Add

Defines a simple bar.

LMC the Bar type field in the Bars dialog box, select Simple bar LMC the Section field, select HP 10x57

Starts to define the bar and assign the properties to it. NOTE: If the section HP 10x57 is not present on the list of available sections, then press the button and next follow the steps mentioned above.

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LMC the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts to define the bar coordinates in a structure.

Enter the bar coordinates in the Beginning and End fields: (-26,0,45) (0,0,52), Add

Defines a bar.

Restores the initial structure view.

Bracket Definition LMC the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts. Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

Geometry / Additional Attributes / Brackets

Opens the Brackets dialog box that is used to define nodal brackets for structure bars. Opens the New Bracket dialog box.

In the Length (L) field enter the value 0.15; leave the remaining parameters unchanged

Defines the bracket length

Add, Close

Defines a new bracket, closes the New Bracket dialog box

LMC the Bars field, move to the graphical viewer and select the recently-defined bar (number 5 should be displayed in the Bars field)

Selects a bar to which a bracket will be assigned.

Apply, Close

Assigns the bracket to the selected bar, closes the Brackets dialog box. The structure defined is displayed in the drawing below.

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Definition of Structure Supports LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Supports

Selects the Robot Millennium layout which allows defining supports.

In the Supports dialog box, LMC on the Current Selection field on the Nodal tab (the cursor is blinking in the field)

Selects structure nodes for which supports will be defined.

Switch to the graphic viewer; pressing the left mouse button select the lower column node by means of the window

The selected node 1 will be entered to the Current Selection field.

From the Supports dialog box select the fixed support icon (the icon will be highlighted)

Selects the support type.

Apply

The selected support type will be assigned to the chosen structure nodes.

LMC on the field for the selection of the Robot Millennium program layout Structure Model/Start

Selects the initial Robot Millennium program layout.

CTRL+A

Selects all nodes and bars.

Edit / Edit / Vertical Mirror

Mirrors selected bars.

Locate graphically the vertical symmetry axis (x = 0), LMC, Close

Performs the axial symmetry of selected bars and closes the Vertical Mirror dialog box. Once this option is selected the initial view of the structure will be presented. The defined structure is shown in the drawing below.

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Definition of Structure Loads LMC on the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure Model/Loads

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout that allows defining structure loads.

LMC on the New button in the Load Types dialog box.

Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name DL1.

LMC on the Nature field (Wind)

Selects the load case type: wind. NOTE: If the load case number is not changed automatically, enter number (2) manually Defines two cases of wind load with the standard names: WIND1 and WIND2.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button LMC on the Nature field (Snow)

Selects the load case type: snow.

LMC on the New button

Defines a snow load with a standard name SN1. Note: The self-weight load was automatically applied to all structure bars (in the “Z” direction).

LMC on the second field in the Case column of the Loads table, select the 2nd load case: WIND1 from the list

Defines loads for the second load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform load) load type

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select the left column in a graphical way

Selects the column to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "px=" column and enter the value: (0.15)

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.

LMC on the third field in the Case column, select the 2nd load case WIND1 from the list

Defines another load for the second load case.

LMC on the field in the List column, select the right column graphically

Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "px=" column and enter the value: (0.10)

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.

LMC on the fourth field in the Case column, select the 4th load case: SN1 from the list

Defines loads for the third load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform load) load type

Selects the load type.

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LMC on the field in the List column, select the beams of the steel girder graphically

Selects bars to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the " PZ =" column and enter the value: (-0.75)

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.

LMC in the View viewer CTRL + A

Selects all structure bars.

While the graphic viewer with the structure model is active, select Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (0,40,0)

Defines the translation vector.

LMC on the Number of Repetitions field (3)

Defines a number of repetitions for the performed translation operations.

Execute, Close

Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog box (proceed to the next step to see changes).

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Selects the isometric structure view (see the drawing below). Once this option is selected the initial view of the structure will be presented. The defined structure is presented in the drawing below.

Definition of Additional Elements of the Structure (Longitudinal Beams, Bracings, Crane Girder) Longitudinal Beams - Definition LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Bars

Selects the Robot Millennium layout that allows defining bars.

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View /Display

Opens the Display dialog box

On the Structure tab switch off the options: Node numbers and Bar numbers On the Sections tab switch off the Symbols option, Apply, OK

Switches off display of node numbers, bar numbers and symbols of bar sections, closes the Display dialog box

LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select: Beam LMC on the Section field and select (HP 10x42)

Selects bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure.

Enter the following coordinates in the Beginning and End field: (26,0,45) (26,40,45), Add (26,40,45) (26,80,45), Add (26,80,45) (26,120,45), Add

Defines longitudinal beams as shown in the drawing below.

Switch to the graphic viewer; RMC in any place in the viewer, which opens the context menu. Chose the Select option and sort out three recently defined bars - while the CTRL key is pressed LMC on three beams While the graphic viewer with the structure model is active, select Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (0,0,-22.5)

Defines the translation vector.

Execute

Translates the structure and highlights translated beams.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (-52,0,0)

Defines a new translation vector.

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Execute

Translates beams and highlights translated beams.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (0,0,22.5)

Defines a new translation vector.

Execute

Translates the structure and highlights translated beams.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (26,0,7)

Defines a new translation vector.

Execute, Close

Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog box. The defined structure is presented in the drawing below.

Bracing - Definition LMC in the Bar Type field and select: Simple bar LMC on the Section field and select (W 12x305)

Selects bar properties.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green) (26,40,0) (26,80,22.5), Add (26,40,22.5) (26,80,0), Add

Defines bracing.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

Select the two recently defined bars while the CTRL key is pressed LMC on two bars Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (0,0,22.5), Execute

Defines the translation vector.

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LMC on the graphic viewer; open the context menu clicking RMC on any point in the viewer. Choose the Select option (the context menu will close then); select all the recently defined bracings – with the CTRL key pressed, LMC on the four bars LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ) in the Translation dialog box, (-52,0,0)

Defines the translation vector.

Execute, Close

Translates bars and closes the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Bars

Selects the Robot Millennium layout that allows defining bars.

LMC on the Bar Type field and select: Simple bar LMC on the Section field and select (W 12x305)

Selects bar properties.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green) (26,40,45) (0,80,52), Add (0,40,52) (26,80,45), Add (-26,40,45) (0,80,52), Add (-26,80,45) (0,40,52), Add

Defines bracing.

Crane Girder - Definition Opens the Sections dialog box. Opens the New Section dialog box. Defines a user section: I-ASYM_1 Select the Parametric tab

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On the Dimension tab enter: b1 = 15.0, h = 22.0, b2 = 10.0, tw = 0.5, tf1 = 0.5, tf2 = 0.5 Add, Close

Defines dimensions of the user section.

Close

Closes the Sections dialog box Opens the Bars dialog box

LMC on the Bar Type field and select: Beam LMC on the Section field and select (I-ASYM_1)

Selects bar properties.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green) (20,0,32) (20,120,32), Add

Defines a crane girder.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

LMC on the View edit viewer; Select the recently defined bar Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (-40,0,0)

Defines the translation vector.

Execute, Close

Translates bars and closes the Translation dialog box.

Definition of Additional Loads LMC in the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure Model/Loads

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout that allows defining structure loads.

LMC on the fifth field in the Case column, select the 3rd load case: WIND2 from the list

Defines loads for the fourth load case.

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LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select the (uniform load) load type

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select the corner columns

Selects columns to which the uniform load will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "py=" column and enter the value: (0.90)

Selects the direction and value of the uniform load.

LMC in the View viewer

The defined load is presented in the drawing below.

Definition of the Moving Load Applied to the Crane Girder Tools / Job Preferences / Databases/ Vehicle Database

Open the Job Preferences dialog box.

Pressing the Create new database icon results in opening the New moving load dialog box. Enter: in the Database field: User in the Database name field: User-defined database in the Database description field: User-defined vehicles in the Internal units of the database select: (kip) as Force units and (ft) as Length units Create

Creates a new database and closes the New moving load dialog box.

OK

Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.

Loads / Special loads / Moving

Opens the Moving loads dialog box. Opens the Moving loads dialog box and starts defining a new vehicle.

On the Symmetric vehicles tab LMC on the New button

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Opens the New vehicle dialog box.

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Enter the vehicle name: Moving crane OK

Defines the name of the new vehicle, closes the New vehicle dialog box.

LMC the first line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines acting forces.

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type.

F = 5.0, X = 0.0, S = 40

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.

LMC the second line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines operating forces.

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type.

F = 5.0, X = 4.0, S = 40

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.

LMC the Save to database button

Opens the Moving load databases dialog box.

OK in the Moving load databases dialog box

Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database.

Add, Close

Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and closes the Moving loads dialog box.

In the Name field, enter the name of the moving load (case number 5) Moving crane

Defines the name of the moving load.

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LMC the Define button

Starts defining the route of the Moving Crane vehicle: the Polyline - Contour dialog box is opened. Activate the Line option.

In the Geometry dialog box define two points determining the route of the moving load: Point P1(0,0,32) Point P2 (0,120,32)

Defines the vehicle route.

Apply, Close

Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

LMC the Step field {8} Assume the default value of load direction (0,0,-1) which means that the load will operate in the Z direction and its sense will be opposite to Z axis sense

Defines the step of a position change for the moving load and the direction of load application.

LMC the Automatic option located in the Application Plane field

Selects the plane of load application.

LMC the Parameters button

Opens the Route Parameters dialog box.

LMC the fields for the LR and LL factors and enter the value 0.1

Defines the factors for the forces operating along the vehicle movement route. It generates the forces originating in vehicle braking, whose value equals 0.1*F.

Activate the following options: Vehicle position limit – route beginning Vehicle position limit – route end

Switching these options on assures that the forces defining the load will not be positioned off the route limits defining the movement of the moving load.

OK

Closes the Route Parameters dialog box.

Apply, Close

Generates the moving load case according to the adopted parameters and closes the Moving loads dialog box.

7.2 Structure Analysis Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box

Structure Analysis

Selects the Structure Analysis option from the tree in the dialog box

Method of Solving the System of Equations: Iterative

Selects the iterative method of solving the equation system for the defined structure

Switch off the option Automatic freezing of results of structure calculations

Switches off freezing of structure calculation results.

OK

Accepts assumed parameters Preferences dialog box

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Starts calculations of the defined structure. Once the calculations are completed, the title bar of the viewer will present the following information: Finite Elements Results available.

Presentation of the Vehicle and the Moving Load Case View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

In the Loads tab: switch on the Moving loads - vehicle option, Apply

Presents the defined vehicle on the structure.

Selects the load case: 5 (Moving crane).

Loads / Select Case Component

Opens the Case Component dialog box.

Select: Current component 5

Selects the component 5 of the moving load case.

LMC the Animation button

Opens the Animation dialog box.

LMC the Start button

Starts the animation of the moving load applied to the structure; the vehicle will move along the defined route.

Stop (LMC the

button) and close

Stops the vehicle animation.

the animation toolbar Close

Closes the Case Component dialog box.

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LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Results/Results

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The RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium program will be opened. The screen will be divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure model, the Diagrams dialog box and a table with reaction values. Selects the load case: 5 (Moving crane).

Select the Deformation tab in the Diagrams dialog box, turn on the Deformation option

Selects presentation of deformation for the selected moving load case.

Apply

Presents the deformation diagram for the structure. Similarly, the diagrams of other quantities available in the Diagrams dialog box can be presented.

Loads / Select Case Component

Opens the Case Component dialog box.

LMC the Animation button

Opens the Animation dialog box.

LMC the Start button

Starts animation of deformation for the structure.

Stop (LMC the

Stops the animation.

button) and close

the animation toolbar

Close

Closes the Animation dialog box.

Select the Deformation tab in the Diagrams dialog box Turn off the Deformation option, Apply

7.3 Structure Design Code: LRFD:2000 LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Design/Steel/Aluminum Design

Starts steel member design. The screen will be divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure model, the Definitions dialog box and the Calculations dialog box.

LMC on the List button located beside the Member Verification field in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Member Selection dialog box.

Enter the member numbers: 1, 2, 6, 7 (columns) in the field located above the Previous button, Close (see the figure below)

Selects members for verification.

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LMC on the Load Case Selection button in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.

LMC on the All button, Close

Selects all load cases.

LMC on the Calculations button

Starts verification of the selected structure members; the Member Verification dialog box shown below will be displayed on the screen.

LMC on the line containing simplified results for member no. 2

Opens the Results dialog box for the selected member.

LMC on the Simplified Results tab

Displays design results for member no. 2 (see the dialog box presented below).

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OK

Closes the Results dialog box.

Close

Closes the Member Verification dialog box.

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions – LRFD:2000 dialog box

Allows definition of the first member group.

Define the first group with the following parameters: Number: 1 Name: Columns Member list: LMC on the View edit viewer; select all columns while the CTRL key is pressed Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the first group consisting of all columns in the structure

Save

Saves the parameters of the first member group.

Switch to the graphic viewer, select from the upper menu: View / Projection / Zx 3d

Once this option is selected, the structure is displayed in 3D view, but it is set in such a way so that the structure is visible only on the ZX plane.

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Allows defining the second member group.

Define the second group with the following parameters: Number: 2 Name: Rafters Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the second group consisting of all bars belonging to both trusses in the structure.

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LMC in the Member list in the Definition dialog box, switch to the graphic viewer and select all rafters by means of a window

Selects all bars of the steel girder.

View / Projection / Zx 3d

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed. Note: apart from the rafters, other bars have been selected (bracings and longitudinal beams). To perform the selection correctly, bars which are not rafter elements should be separated, while the CTRL key is pressed.

Save

Saves the parameters of the second member group.

LMC the List button in the Code group design line in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Code Group Selection dialog box.

LMC the All button (in the field above the Previous button), the list: 1 2 will appear there, Close

Selects member groups to be designed.

LMC the Load Case Selection button in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Load case selection dialog box.

LMC the All button (in the field above the Previous button), Close

Selects all load cases, closes the Load case selection dialog box.

Activate the options: Optimization and Limit state: Ultimate Press the Options button and Activate the Weight option

Opens the Optimization Options dialog box; it will result in finding the section with the smallest weight during the optimization process.

OK

Closes the Optimization Options dialog box.

LMC the Calculation button

Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing below).

LMC the Change All button in the LRFD:2000 - Code Group Design dialog box shown above

Changes the currently used sections in the members belonging to both member groups to the calculated sections (for columns: from W 21x101 to W 12x58, for rafters: from HP 10x42 to HP 12x53).

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Close

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculations dialog box

Close

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Closes the Code Group Design dialog box. Recalculates the structure with the changed member sections. Once calculations are finished, the following information will be displayed in the Robot top bar: Results (FEM): available Starts design of selected member groups; the Short results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing below). Keep on repeating the calculations until the optimal sections are obtained.

Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.

Close the Member Verification and the Results dialog boxes

7.4 Influence Lines LMC in the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Activates the START layout of the Robot Millennium program.

Results / Advanced / Influence line

Opens the Influence lines dialog box.

On the NTM tab of the Influence Lines dialog box, switch on the My option

Selects the My bending moment for a moving load case for presentation.

LMC in the Element field and choose the right crane girder (bar no. 68)

Selects the bar for which the program will present influence lines.

In the Point field set the Point position at 0.25

The point position (equal to 0.25) means that the influence line will be created for the point at one fourth of the bar length. Selects the 5th load case from the load case list. Note: The influence lines can be created only for a moving load case.

Apply

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Opens another window presenting the influence lines for the selected quantities.

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RMC in the Influence lines viewer where the influence lines are presented for the right crane girder

Opens the context menu.

Add coordinates

If the option is selected, the table located under the diagrams of influence lines will display additional columns containing the coordinates of the successive structure points (see the figure below).

On the NTM tab of the Influence Line dialog box, switch off the My option; activate the Fz option

Selects the shear force for a moving load case for presentation.

LMC in the Open a new window option Apply

Opens a new window for presentation of influence lines.

RMC in the Influence lines viewer where the influence lines are presented for the right crane girder

Opens the context menu.

Add coordinates

If the option is selected, the table located under the diagrams of influence lines will display additional columns containing the coordinates of the successive structure points (see the figure below).

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3D Bridge with a Moving Load

This example presents definition, analysis and design of a single-span bottom-road bridge shown in the figure below. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

Eight load cases have been assigned to the structure and six of them are displayed in the drawings below.

LOAD CASE 2 - LL1

LOAD CASE 3 - LL2 LOAD CASE 4 - LL3 vertical mirror of LOAD CASE 3

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LOAD CASE 5 - WIND1

LOAD CASE 6 - WIND2

LOAD CASE 7 - Moving vehicle

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LOAD CASE 8 - Moving uniform load The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window will be displayed on the screen and the icon

in the second row (Shell Design) should be selected. NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.

8.1 Definition of the Structure Model 8.1.1 Definition of Structure Geometry Bridge Floor - Definition PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected the structure is set on the XY plane.

Geometry / Object / Polyline contour

Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box which allows defining various line types.

LMC in the Geometry button

Opens the dialog box which allows defining a contour.

Enter the following coordinates into the field highlighted in green: (0,0,0) Add, (98,0,0) Add, (98,13,0) Add, (0,13,0) Add, Apply, Close

Defines a contour.

Presentation of the structure initial view.

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Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box that allows defining panels within structures.

LMC in the button located on the right side of the Thickness field

Opens the New Thickness dialog box.

Set the new thickness value: 9 in. and enter the new name TH9_CONCR, Add, Close

Defines a new panel and closes the dialog box.

LMC the button located to the right of the Reinforcement field

Opens the Reinforcement Parameters dialog box.

On the General tab in the Main Reinforcement Direction field select the Along Y axis option

Selects the direction of main reinforcement

Into the Name Direction_Y, Add, Close

Assigns the name to the new reinforcement type, closes the Reinforcement Parameters dialog box

field

enter

LMC in the Reinforcement field and set Direction Y reinforcement

Defines reinforcement type that will be applied to the defined panel.

LMC in the Internal Point field and select a point inside the panel by left-clicking on it

Applies current properties to the selected panel.

Close

Closes the Panel dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed. The defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

Support Definition View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box which is used to select structure attributes for presentation.

On the Finite elements tab switch off the Numbers and panel description option, OK

Stops presentation of panel numbers and descriptions.

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LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Supports

Selects the Robot Millennium layout which allows defining supports.

In the Supports dialog box select the fixed support icon (the icon will be highlighted)

Selects the support type.

In the Supports dialog box on the Linear tab LMC on the Current Selection field Switch to the graphic viewer; pressing the left mouse button select two shorter edges of the structure, Apply

Assigns fixed supports to two shorter edges of the structure.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Geometry

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box, which allows selecting structure attributes for presentation.

On the Structure tab in the Display dialog box activate Supports symbols, Apply, OK

Displays symbols of structure supports on the screen, closes the Display dialog box. The defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

Definition of Bridge Trusses (Application of Library Structures) Opens the Typical Structures dialog box that allows defining typical structures (structure elements). On the Structure Database Selection field select the Library of typical structures - beams, frames, trusses option.

In the Typical Structures dialog box a new Structure Selection field appears. Opening of the Trapezoid Truss Type 3 dialog box.

LMC (twice) the icon the last one in the third row In the Dimension tab LMC the Length L1 field {98)

Defines length of the lower truss chord (it may be defined graphically in the graphical viewer).

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On the Dimension tab LMC the Length L2 field {90)

Defines length of the upper truss chord (it may be defined graphically in the graphical viewer).

LMC the Height H field {15}

Defines truss height (it may be defined graphically in the graphical viewer).

LMC the Number of Fields {10}

Defines a number of fields into which the truss will be divided.

On the Dimensions tab in the Continuous chord field activate option No

Applies divided chords to the structure.

On the Insert tab LMC the Insertion Point, select coordinates: (0,0,0)

Defines the insertion point for the truss; the defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

Apply, OK

Creates the defined structure at the indicated point within the construction and closes the Merge Structure dialog box.

Opens the Sections dialog box. LMC in the Line/Bars field, switch to the graphic viewer and select all bars belonging to trusses

Selects truss bars.

LMC in the S 15x50 section

Selects the section which will be applied to the chosen bars. Note: If the S 15x50 section is not available on the list, one should press the icon located in the upper part of the Sections dialog box. It opens the New Section dialog box. On the Standard tab in the Section Selection field chose the following options:

-

Database - AISC Family - S

Section - S 15x50 Pressing the Add button will result in adding the S 15x50 section to the list of available sections. Pressing the Close button will result in closing the New Section dialog box.

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Apply, accept the material change to the default one, Close

Attributes S 15x50 section to the selected structure bars, closes the Sections dialog box.

Switch to the graphic viewer and select all truss bars

Selects all truss bars.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the field (dX, dY, dZ), (0,13,0)

Defines a new translation vector.

Execute, Close

Translates beams, highlights translated beams and closes the Translation dialog box. The defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

Bracing Definition LMC in the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Bars

Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts, which allows defining bars.

LMC in the Bar Type field and select: Simple bar, LMC in the Section field and select (DL 2x2x0.25)

Defines bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used.

LMC in the Beginning and End fields (background color changes to green) (4,0,15) (14,13,15), Add (4,13,15) (14,0,15), Add

Defines bracing.

RMC in any point within the graphic viewer which opens the context menu. Choose the Select option and indicate two recently defined bars, while the CTRL key is pressed.

Selects two recently defined bars.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

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LMC in the field (dX, dY, dZ) (10,0,0), in the Number of Repetitions field {8}

Defines the translation vector and allows defining the number of repetitions.

Execute, Close

Translates the structure, highlights translated bars and closes the Translation dialog box.

LMC in the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Geometry

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout. The defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

Cross Beams - Definition LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Bars

Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts, which allows defining bars.

LMC in the Bar Type field and select: Simple bar LMC in the Section field and select (MC 12x50).

Defines bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the MC 12x50 section is not available on the list, one should select Structure Model / Properties, press the icon and add the section to the list of active sections.

LMC in the Beginning and End fields (background color changes to green) (4,0,15) (4,13,15), Add

Defines cross beams.

RMC in any point within the graphic viewer, which opens the context menu. Chose the Select option and indicate the recently defined bar.

Selects the recently defined bar.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC in the field (dX, dY, dZ) (10,0,0) in the Number of Repetitions field {9}

Defines a translation vector and allows defining a number of repetitions.

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Execute, Close

Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog box.

LMC in the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Geometry

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout. The defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

8.1.2 Load Definition LMC in the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure Model / Loads

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout that allows defining structure loads.

LMC in the New button in the Load Types dialog box

Defines a dead load with the standard name DL1.

LMC in the Nature field: (Live)

Selects the type of a load case: live.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button LMC on the New button

Defines two cases of live load with the standard names: LL1, LL2 and LL3.

LMC on the Nature field: (Wind)

Selects the type of a load case: wind.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button

Defines two cases of wind load with standard names: WIND1 and WIND2. Note: The self-weight load has been automatically applied to all structure bars (in the “Z” direction).

LMC on the Loads toolbar

icon on the Bar

In the Load Definition dialog box select Surface tab and press the

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Uniform Planar Load dialog box

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Selects the load case: Live Load 1.

In the Values Z: field enter -0.6

Defines a value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate system.

Add

Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

In the Apply To field enter 1

Displays the current selection of structure panel.

Apply

Applies predefined load to a chosen panel.

In the Load Definition dialog box

Opens the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

select Surface tab and press Selects load case: Live Load 2.

In the Values Z: field enter -0.5

Defines a value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate system.

LMC on the Contour Definition button

Opens the dialog box that allows defining the contour to which the load is applied. It may be performed either in the dialog box or graphically on the screen.

In the green field enter coordinates that define a contour: (0,0,0), Add (98,0,0), Add (98,3,0), Add (0,3,0), Add

Defines the contour to which the loads will be applied.

Add

Closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

In the Apply To field enter 1

Displays the current selection of structure panel.

Apply

Applies predefined load to a chosen panel.

In the Load Definition dialog box select the Surface tab and press the

Opens the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

icon

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Selects load case: Live Load 3.

In the Values Z: field enter -0.5

Defines a value of the uniform load acting on surface FE in the direction of the Z global coordinate system.

LMC on the Contour Definition button

Opens dialog box that allows defining the contour, to which the load will be applied. It may be performed either in the dialog box or graphically on the screen.

In the green field enter coordinates that define a contour: (0,10,0), Add (98,10,0), Add (98,13,0), Add (0,13,0), Add

Defines contour to which the loads will be applied.

Add

Closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

In the field Apply To type 1

Displays the current selection of structure panel.

Apply, Close

Applies the predefined load to a chosen panel, closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

View / Projection / Zx

Once this option is selected, the Zx plane is chosen.

LMC on the fifth field in the Case column, select 5th load case: WIND1 from the list

Defines loads for the fifth load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select (nodal force) from the list as a load type

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select all nodes of the front truss in a graphic way

Selects nodes to which nodal force will be applied.

LMC on the field in the "FY=" column and enter the value: (0.90)

Selects the direction and value of the nodal force load.

LMC on the fifth field in the Case column, select 6th load case: WIND2 from the list

Defines loads for the sixth load case.

LMC on the field in the Load Type column, select (nodal force) from the list as a load type

Selects the load type.

LMC on the field in the List column, select four left nodes belonging to both trusses

Selects nodes to which nodal force will be applied.

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LMC on the field in the "FX=" column and enter the value: (0.60)

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Selects the direction and value of the nodal force load.

8.1.3 Definition of the Moving Load Applied to the Bridge Floor LMC in the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Geometry

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout.

Tools / Job preferences / Databases/ Vehicle Database

Open the Job preferences dialog box.

Pressing the Create new database icon results in opening the New Moving Load dialog box. Enter: in the Database field: User in the Database name field: User-defined database in the Database description field: User-defined vehicles in the Internal units of the database chose (ft) as Length units and (kip) as Force unit Create

Closes the New Moving Load dialog box.

OK

Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.

Loads / Special loads / Moving

Opens the Moving Loads dialog box. Opens the Moving Loads dialog box and starts defining a new vehicle.

On the Symmetric Vehicles tab LMC on the New button

Defines a new vehicle.

Enter the vehicle name: Vehicle 1, OK

Defines the name of the new vehicle.

LMC the first line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines operating forces.

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type.

F = 13.5, X = 0.0, S = 1.75

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.

LMC the second line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines operating forces.

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type.

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F = 6.75, X = 11.75, S = 1.75

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.

LMC the third line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines operating forces.

Select the load type: concentrated force

Selects a load type.

F = 13.5,X = 15.75, S = 1.75

Defines the value and location of the concentrated force.

LMC the Save to database button

Opens the Moving Load Databases dialog box.

Select User database and press the OK button in the Moving load databases dialog box

Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database.

Add, Close

Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and closes the Moving Loads dialog box.

In the Name field, enter the name of the moving load (case number 7) Moving vehicle

Defines a name of the moving load.

LMC the Define button

Starts defining the route of the Moving Crane vehicle; the Polyline - Contour dialog box is opened. Activate the Line option.

In the Geometry dialog box define two points determining the route of the moving load: Point P1 (0,6.5,0) Point P2 (98, 6.5,0)

Defines the vehicle route.

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Apply, Close

Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

LMC the Step field: {8} Assume the default value of load direction: (0,0,-1) which means that the load will be operating in the Z direction and its sense will be opposite to the Z axis sense

Defines the step of a position change for the moving load and the load application direction.

LMC the Automatic option located in the Application Plane field

Selects the plane of load application.

Apply

Generates the moving load case according to the adopted parameters. Opens the Moving Loads dialog box and starts defining a new vehicle.

On the Symmetric vehicles tab LMC on the New button

Defines a new vehicle.

Type the vehicle name: Moving surface load OK

Defines the name of a new vehicle.

LMC the first line in the table located in the lower part of the dialog box

Defines operating forces.

Select the load type: surface load

Selects the load type.

P = 0.9, X = 0.0, S = 0.0, DX = 4.0, DY = 3.0

Defines the value and location of the surface load.

LMC the Save to database button

Opens the Moving Load Databases dialog box.

Select the User database, OK in the Moving load databases

Saves the defined vehicle to the user-defined database.

Add, Close

Adds the defined vehicle to the list of active vehicles and closes the Moving Loads dialog box.

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In the Name field, type the name of the moving load (case number: 8): Moving surface load

Defines the name of a moving load.

LMC the Define button

Starts defining the route of the Moving Crane vehicle: the Polyline - Contour dialog box is opened. Activate the Line option.

In the Geometry dialog box define two points determining the route of the moving load: Point P1(0,1.5,0) Point P2 (98,1.5,0)

Defines the vehicle route.

Apply, Close

Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

LMC the Step field {8} Assume the default value of load direction: (0,0,-1) which means that the load will be operating in the Z direction and its sense will be opposite to the Z axis sense

Defines the step of a position change for the moving load and the load application direction.

LMC the Automatic option located in the Application Plane field

Selects the plane of load application.

Apply, Close

Generates a second moving load case according to the adopted parameters and closes the Moving Loads dialog box.

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8.2 Structure Analysis Tools / Job Preferences / Structure Analysis

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box

Switch off the option: Automatic freezing of results of structure calculations, OK

Switches off freezing of structure calculations results, closes the Job Preferences dialog box.

Starts calculations of the defined structure. Once the calculations are completed, the title bar of the viewer will present the following information: Finite Elements Results available.

8.2.1 Result Presentation in the Form of Maps LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Results/Results - maps

The RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium program will open. The screen will be divided into two parts: the graphic viewer containing the structure model and the Maps dialog box. Selects the load case: 2 (LL1).

On the Detailed tab activate the z option in the Displacement - u,w line

Activates visualization of the displacement for individual surface FEs in the local coordinate system. These are the displacements in the direction perpendicular to the element surface.

Activate Maps option

Allows presentation of results obtained for FE in the form of maps.

Apply

Presents the structure displacement. Selects the load case: 7 (Moving vehicle).

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On the Deformation tab switch on the Active option

Activates presenting deformation of the currently designed structure.

Apply

Presents the structure displacement.

Loads / Select Case Component

Opens the Case Component dialog box.

LMC the Animation button

Opens the Animation dialog box.

LMC the Start button

Starts performing the displacement animation for the structure. Stops the animation.

Stop (LMC the

button) and close

the animation toolbar Closes the Case component dialog box.

Close Switch off the options Displacement u,w and active in the Maps dialog box

8.3 Structure Member Design LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Bars

Selects the BARS layout from the list of the available Robot Millennium layouts.

Switch to the graphic viewer and select from the upper menu: Geometry / Code parameters / Steel/Aluminium Member Type

Opens the Member Type dialog box.

Opens the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.

In the Buckling length coefficient Y press the

button

Select the last button in the second row

, OK

In the Buckling length coefficient Z press the

Applies the selected buckling diagram and appropriate buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams dialog box. Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows defining buckling length for members.

button

Select the last button in the second row

Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows defining buckling length for members.

, OK

In the Member Type field enter: Chords

Applies selected buckling diagram and appropriate buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams dialog box. Applies the name to a new bar type.

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Save, Close

Saves current parameters for the Chord member type, closes the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.

LMC on the Line/Bars option located in the Member Type dialog box, switch to the graphic viewer and select all bars belonging to chords

Selects truss chords.

Apply

Applies current member type (Chords) to the selected truss bars. Opens the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.

In the Buckling length coefficient Y press the

Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows defining buckling length for members.

button

Select the first button in the third row , OK In the Buckling length coefficient Z press the

Applies the selected buckling diagram and appropriate buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams dialog box. Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box which allows defining buckling length for members.

button

Select the first button in the third row , OK

Applies the selected buckling diagram and appropriate buckling length coefficient, closes the Buckling Diagrams dialog box.

In the Member Type field enter: Diagonals

Assigns the name to a new bar type.

Save, Close

Saves current parameters for the Cross braces member type, closes the Member Definitions - Parameters dialog box.

LMC on the Line/Bars option located in the Member Type dialog box, switch to the graphic viewer and select all diagonals belonging to trusses

Selects cross braces in the trusses.

Apply, Close

Applies current member type (Diagonals) to the selected truss bars, closes the Member Type dialog box.

8.3.1 Structure Design Code LRFD:2000 Structure design / Steel/Aluminum design

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Selects the STEEL/ALUMINUM DESIGN layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

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In the Groups tab located in the Definitions dialog box press the New button

Starts defining a new group.

Define the first group with the following parameters: Number: 1 Name: Upper chords Member list: LMC on the View edit viewer; select all the bars of the upper chords while the CTRL key is pressed Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the first group consisting of all bars belonging to the upper chords in the structure.

Save

Saves the parameters of the first member group.

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Allows defining a second member group.

Define the second group with the following parameters: Number: 2 Name: Lower chords Member list: LMC on the View edit viewer; select all the bars of the lower chords while the CTRL key is pressed Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the second group consisting of all bars belonging to the lower chords in the structure.

Save

Saves the parameters of the second member group.

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Allows defining a third member group.

Define the third group with the following parameters: Number: 3 Name: Diagonals Member list: LMC on the View edit viewer; select all the diagonals belonging to the trusses while the CTRL key is pressed Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the third group consisting of all diagonals belonging to trusses in the structure.

Save

Saves the parameters of the third member group.

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Allows defining a fourth member group.

Define the fourth group with the following parameters: Number: 4 Name: Bracing Member list: LMC on the View edit viewer; select all the bracings in the structure while the CTRL key is pressed Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the third group consisting of all bracings in the structure.

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Save

Saves the parameters of the fourth member group.

LMC the New button on the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box

Allows defining a fifth member group.

Define the fifth group with the following parameters: Number: 5 Name: Beams Member list: LMC on the View edit viewer; select all cross beams while the CTRL key is pressed Material: STEEL Carbon Fy 36 ksi

Defines the fifth group consisting of all cross beams in the structure.

Save

Saves the parameters of the third member group.

In the Calculations – LRFD:2000 dialog box switch on the Code Group Design option

Activates design in groups.

LMC on the List button in the Code group design line in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Code Group Selection dialog box.

Press the All button located in the upper part of the Code Group Selection dialog box. In the field below the All button the list: 1to5 will appear Close

Selects member groups to be designed, closes the Code Group Selection dialog box.

In the Calculations – LRFD:2000 dialog box switch on the Optimization option

The option allows determining parameters of calculations performed for member groups taking the optimization options into account.

LMC the Options button

Opens the Optimizations Options dialog box.

In the Optimization Options dialog box switch on the Weight option

Activation of this option will result in searching for the lightest section in the group of sections that meet the codedefined criteria.

OK

Closes the Optimization Options dialog box.

LMC the Load Case Selection button in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.

LMC the All button (in the field above the Previous button), the list: 1to8 13to16 will appear there, Close

Selects all load cases.

Activate the Ultimate option in the Limit State field LMC the Calculations button

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Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing below).

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LMC the Change All button in the LRFD:2000 - Code Group Design dialog box shown above

Close

UPDATE, November 2005

Changes the currently used sections of the members belonging to all member groups to the calculated sections:

-

for Upper Chords from S 15x50 to S 18x54.7, for Lower Chords from S 15x50 to S 6x12.5, for Diagonals from S 15x50 to S 18x54.7, for Bracings from DL 2x2x0.25 to DL 4x4x0.25 for Beams from MC 12x50 to MC 8x21.4

Closes the Code Group Design dialog box. Recalculates the structure with the changed member sections

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculations dialog box

Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing below).

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LMC the Change All button in the LRFD:2000 - Code Group Design dialog box shown above

Close

UPDATE, November 2005

Changes the currently used sections of the members belonging to all member groups to the calculated sections:

-

for Upper Chords - without changes, for Lower Chords from S 6x12.5 to S 4x7.7, for Diagonals - without changes, for Bracings from DL 4x4x0.25 to DL 4x4x0.312, for Beams from MC 8x21.4 to MC 6x15.1

Closes the Code Group Design dialog box. Recalculates the structure with the changed member sections

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculations dialog box

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Starts design of the selected member groups; the Short Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing below).

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Close

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Closes the Code Group Design dialog box.

Close the Member Verification and the Results dialog boxes

Member Verification In the Calculations - LRFD:2000 dialog box switch on the Code Group Verification option

Activates the code group verification option.

LMC in the List button in the Code Group Verification option

Opens the Code Group Selection dialog box.

Press the All button located in the upper part of the Code Group Selection dialog box. In the field below the All button the list: 1to5 will appear, Close

Selects member groups to be designed, closes the Code Group Selection dialog box.

LMC the Load Case Selection button in the Calculations dialog box

Opens the Load Case Selection dialog box.

LMC the All button (in the field above the Previous button), the list: 1to8 13to16 will appear, Close

Selects all load cases.

LMC the Calculations button in the Calculations dialog box

Starts code group verification of selected member groups; the Short Results dialog box appears on the screen (see the drawing below).

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Close

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Closes the Code Group Verification dialog box.

8.4 Time History Analysis LMC in the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Geometry

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout.

Analysis / Analysis Types

Opens the Analysis Type dialog box which allows defining a new load case (modal analysis, spectral analysis, seismic analysis, etc.), changing the load case type and introducing changes to the parameters of the selected load case.

LMC in the New button

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box which allows defining new dynamic cases within the structure.

LMC in the OK button

Opens the Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box which allows defining modal analysis parameters for the new dynamic cases in the structure

In the Method field select the Lanczos option, in the Parameters field switch on the Include Damping in Calculations option (PS 92), in the Number of Modes field {3}

Chooses the method of structure analysis. Selects the mode number (3), takes account of damping during calculations.

OK

Closes the Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box and adds a new load case to the list of available load cases.

LMC in the New button

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box which allows defining new dynamic cases within the structure.

Select the Time History Analysis option, OK

Opens the Time History Analysis dialog box which is used to define time history analysis parameters for a new dynamic load case defined for the structure

LMC in the Function definition button

Opens the Time Function Definition dialog box.

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In the Defined function field enter the function name: Wind impact, Add

Assigns the name to the time function. The new tabs: Points and Add functions will appear in the dialog box.

On the Points tab define consecutive points of the time function: T = 0.00, F(T) = 0.00 Add T = 0.01, F(T) = 5.00 Add T = 0.02, F(T) = 0.00 Add T = 1.00, F(T) = 0.00 Add Close

Defines the time function, closes the Time Function Definition dialog box.

In the Time History Analysis field select 5th load case: WIND1 from the available load case list

Selects the number of a selected case.

LMC in the buttons Add, OK

Assigns a static load case which will be used during time analysis, closes the Time History Analysis dialog box.

Tools / Job Preferences / Structure Analysis

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box

Select the DSC Algorithm option, OK

Assumes the DSC algorithm for calculations, closes the Job Preferences dialog box

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LMC in the Calculations button

Starts calculation of the structure for the defined load cases. Once the calculations are completed, the viewer title bar will show the following information: Finite Elements Results - available.

Close

Closes the Analysis Types dialog box.

Select from the upper menu: Results / Advanced / Time History Analysis - Diagrams

Opens the Time History Analysis dialog box

Add

Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box which is used to define a diagram of the quantities calculated during the time history analysis.

Select the following option on the Nodes tab: Displacement, UX

Selects displacement in the UX direction

In the Point field enter the node number: {12}

Selects node no. 12 (see the figure below) for which the diagram will be presented

Add, Close

In the panel located on the left side of the screen (Available diagrams), the defined displacement with the default name: Displacement_UX_12 appears; closing of the Diagram Definition dialog box.

LMC in the Displacement_UX_12 (it will be highlighted) and press the

Moves the selected diagram to the panel on the right side of the screen (Presented diagrams).

button Switch on the Open a new window option and press the Apply button

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Displays the displacement (Displacement_UX_12) diagram on the screen (see the figure below).

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Select Displacement_UX_12 from the panel on the right-hand side of

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Deletes the selected quantity from the panel on the right side of the screen

the screen and then, press the button Add

Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box which is used to define diagrams of the quantities calculated during time history analysis.

Select the following option on the Node tab: Acceleration, UX

Selects acceleration in the UX direction.

In the Point field enter the node number: {12}

Selects the node no. 12 (see the picture below) for which the diagram will be prepared

Add, Close

In the panel on the left side of the screen (Available diagrams) the defined displacement with default name: Acceleration_AX_12 appears, closing of the Diagram Definition dialog box.

LMC in the Acceleration_AX_12 (it will be highlighted) and the press the

Moves the selected diagram to the panel on the right side of the screen (Presented diagrams).

button Switch on the Open a new window option and press the Apply button

Displays the acceleration (Acceleration_AX_12) diagram on the screen (see the figure below).

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Volumetric Structure

This example presents definition, analysis and design of a machine foundation shown in the figure below. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

Four load cases have been assigned to the structure and three of them are displayed in the drawings below.

LOAD CASE 2 - LL1

LOAD CASE 3 - LL2

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LOAD CASE 4 - LL3 The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window will be displayed on the screen and the icon

(Volumetric Structure Design), the last but one in the first row, should be selected.

9.1 Definition of Structure Model Definition of Structural Axes PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Geometry / Axis Definition

Opens the Structural Axis dialog box which allows defining structural axes.

On the X tab chose the Define option located in the Numbering field and then enter the x1 number in the edit field. Enter the following values in the Position field: (0) Insert, (3) Insert, (5) Insert, (17) Insert, (19) Insert, (31) Insert, (33) Insert, (36) Insert

Defines the method of axis numbering. Creates the vertical axes designated with consecutive numbers x1, x2, x3, etc.

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On the Y tab chose the Define option located in the Numbering field and then enter the y1 number in the edit field. Enter the following values in the Position field: (0) Insert, (2) Insert, (4) Insert, (14) Insert, (16) Insert, (18) Insert

Defines the method of axis numbering. Creates the vertical axes designated with consecutive numbers y1, y2, y3 etc.

On the Z tab chose the Define option located in the Numbering field and then enter the z1 number in the edit field. Enter the following values in the Position field: (0) Insert, (2) Insert, (12) Insert, (14) Insert

Defines the method of axis numbering. Creates the vertical axes designated with consecutive numbers z1, z2, z3 etc.

Apply, Close

Displays the recently defined structural axis on the screen, closes the Structural Axis dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Displays a 3D view of the structure. Presents the initial view of the structure axes (see the picture below).

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Definition of the Structure A Base of the Foundation View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY plane.

Select from the menu Geometry / Objects / Polyline - contour

Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box that allows defining various line types.

LMC in the Geometry button

Opens the dialog box that allows defining a contour.

Set the cursor in the green field, then switch to the graphic viewer and select graphically the consecutive points defining the contour (i.e. the intersection points of the appropriate structural axes): x1 - y1, x8 - y1, x8 - y6, x1 - y6 Apply, Close

Defines a contour, closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

Presents the initial view of the structure. Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box that allows defining structure panels.

Activate the Face option in the Contour Type field

Once this option is selected, the currently generated object will be defined as a face (without assigning properties), which enable using such an object during generation of a volumetric structure.

LMC in the Internal Point field and select the point inside the contour by left-clicking on it

Applies current properties to the selected panel.

Close

Closes the Panel dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed. The defined structure (without presentation of the structural axes) is shown in the drawing below.

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Selects the recently defined panel, whose color changes to red. In the selection field enter number 1, Enter Geometry / Objects / Extrude

Opens the Extrude dialog box which is used to create simple solid-like elements by extruding predefined twodimensional objects.

Activate the ll to Axis option and select the Z axis

Once this option is selected, the object will be extruded along the axis that is parallel to the Z axis of the global coordinate system.

In the edit field set the length of the extrusion vector as 2

Defines the length of the extrusion vector.

Enter 1 in the Division Number field

Defines the number of divisions to be performed while extruding the selected object.

Apply, Close

Extrudes the selected two-dimensional object along the appropriate axis.

Columns View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the work plane for structure definition/modification.

Switch to the graphic viewer and select graphically the intersection point of the following axes: x1 - y1 - z2 and then press the Apply button

Sets a new global work plane for structure definition. The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change automatically to the selected ones e.g. (0.0, 0.0, 2.0).

Close the Work Plane dialog box by button means of the

Closes the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined (i.e. Z = 2.0). Only the structure components located in this plane will remain visible.

Geometry / Objects / Cube

Opens the Cube dialog box that allows defining cubes.

Select the three points option in the Definition Method field

Selects a rectangle as a base of the cube. The rectangle will be defined by means of the two opposite apexes of the rectangle.

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Switch to the graphic editor and select two opposite apexes of the rectangle defined by means of the intersection points of the following axes: x2 - y2, x3 - y2, x3 - y3, then in the Height field located in the Geometry dialog box enter the value 10 and press the Apply and Close buttons

Defines the cube, closes the Cube dialog box.

Switch to the graphic viewer and enter the number 2 in the selection

Selects the recently defined cube.

field next to the

, Enter

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

In the graphic viewer select the topright apex of the rectangle, which defines base of the cube. In the Translation Vector field located in the Translation dialog box, enter the following numbers: (0.0, 12.0, 0.0), Execute

Translates the selected cube.

RMC in the graphic viewer and choose the Select option

Opens the context menu

Select the recently defined cubes (nos. 2 and 3 appear in the edit field). Switch to the Translation dialog box and in the Number of Repetitions field enter 2, then define the translation vector: (14.0, 0.0, 0.0), Execute, Close

Translate the selected cubes.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed. The defined structure (without presentation of the construction axis) is shown in the drawing below.

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Top of the Foundation View / Display On the Finite elements tab switch off the option Numbers and panel description, OK

Opens the Display dialog box with the options enabling display of selected structure attributes on the screen. Switches off display of the panel description and closes the Display dialog box

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the work plane for structure definition/modyfication.

Switch to the graphic viewer and select graphically the intersection point of the following axes: x2 - y2 - z4 and then press the Apply button

Sets a new global work plane for structure definition. The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change automatically to the selected ones e.g. (3.00, 2.00, 14.00).

Close the Work Plane dialog box by means of the button

Closes the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined (i.e. z = 14.0). Only the structure components located in this plane will remain visible.

Geometry / Objects / Polyline contour

Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box which allows defining various line types.

Set the cursor in the green field, then switch to the graphic viewer and select graphically the consecutive points defining the contour (i.e. the intersection points of the appropriate structural axes): x2 - y2, x7 - y2, x7 - y5, x2 - y5, Apply, Close

Defines contour, closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box that enables definition of panels in a structure

Switch on the Face option located in the Contour type field

If this option is selected, the created object will be defined as a wall (without assigning such properties as a reinforcement type or thickness) which makes it possible to use this object while generating a volumetric structure

LMC on the Internal point option located in the Creation with field, select any point within the contour

Assigns the selected properties to the chosen panel

Close

Closes the Panel dialog box

In the selection field, next to the icon, enter 8, Enter

Selects the recently defined contour whose color changes to red.

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Geometry / Objects / Extrude

Opens the Extrude dialog box which is used to create simple solid-like elements by extruding predefined twodimensional objects.

Activate the ll to Axis option and select the Z axis

Once this option is selected, the object will be extruded along the axis that is parallel to the Z axis of the global coordinate system.

In the edit field set the length of the extrusion vector as – 2

Defines the length of the extrusion vector.

Enter 1 in the Division Number field

Defines the number of divisions to be performed during the extrusion process.

Apply, Close

Extrudes the selected two-dimensional object along the appropriate axis. If this option is selected, invisible lines in the structure will not be displayed

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed. If this option is selected, invisible lines in the structure will not be displayed Presents the initial view of the structure (see the picture below).

Support Definition LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Supports

Selects the Robot Millennium layout that allows defining supports.

In the Supports dialog box press the

Opens the Support Definition dialog box that allows defining a new support.

icon

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On the Elastic tab switch off the UZ option and in the KZ field that becames available enter 4800 (kip/ft)

Defines the support elasticity displacement in the Z direction.

In the Label field enter the name for a new support: Elastic Foundation Add, Close

Assigns the name to the defined support

In the Supports dialog box, LMC on the Current Selection field on the Planar tab

Selects a structure surface for which supports will be defined.

Switch to the graphic viewer; pressing the left mouse button select the surface being the base of the foundation - in the Current Selection field 1_REF(1) will appear

Selects the surface of the foundation base.

From the Supports dialog box select the recently defined Elastic foundation support (the icon will be highlighted)

Selects the support type.

LMC on the Apply button

The selected support type will be assigned to the chosen structure surface.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Geometry

Selects the initial Robot Millennium layout.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box that allows selecting structure attributes for presentation.

On the Structure tab, in the Display dialog box activate Supports symbols, Apply, OK

Displays symbols of structure supports on the screen, closes the Display dialog box. The defined structure is shown in the drawing below.

coefficient

for

the

Using the dynamic zoom option enables structure rotation and pan, so that the bottom structure part with supports can be presented.

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Mesh Generation In order to improve mesh generation define additional nodes. View / Grid / Grid Step Definition Opens the Grid Step Definition dialog box, which is used to change the grid step presented on the screen. In the Grid Step field set the grid step Dx and Dy as 1.00, Apply, Close

Changes the grid step, closes the Grid Step Definition dialog box

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the work plane for structure definition/modification.

Switch to the graphic viewer and select graphically the intersection point of the following axes: x1 - y1 - z1 and then press the Apply button

Sets a new global work plane for structure definition. The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change automatically to the selected ones e.g. (0.0, 0.0, 0.0).

Close the Work Plane dialog box by means of the button

Closes the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined (i.e. z = 0.0). Only the structure components located on this plane will remain visible.

Geometry / Nodes

Opens the Nodes dialog box that allows defining the structure nodes.

Define the additional nodes whose coordinates are the intersection points of the following structure axes: x2 - y2, x3 - y2, x3 - y3, x2 - y3, and the nodes of the following coordinates: (4.00, 2.00, 0.00), (5.00, 3.00, 0.00), (4.00, 4.00, 0.00), (3.00, 3.00, 0.00),

Defines nodes, closes the Node dialog box.

In the edit field located next to the

Selects all the nodes defined in the structure.

icon enter all, Enter Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

In the Translation vector field enter: (14.00, 0.00, 0.00) In the Number of repetitions field enter: 2 Execute, Close In the edit field located next to the

Selects all the nodes defined in the structure.

icon enter all, Enter

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Edit / Edit / Horizontal mirror

Opens the Horizontal Mirror dialog box

LMC on the Axis Position field 9.00

Defines the position of the horizontal symmetry axis.

Execute, Close

Performs horizontal symmetry of the selected nodes, closes the Horizontal Mirror dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed.

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box that allows setting the work plane for structure definition/modification.

In the graphic viewer select graphically the intersection point of the following axes: x2 - y2 - z4 and then press the Apply button

Sets a new global work plane for structure definition. The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change automatically to the selected ones e.g. (3.0, 3.0, 14.0).

Close the Work Plane dialog box button by means of the

Closes the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY plane for the Z coordinate value recently defined (i.e. z = 14.0). Only the structure components located on this plane will remain visible.

Geometry / Nodes

Opens the Nodes dialog box which allows defining the structure nodes.

Define additional nodes whose coordinates are the intersection points of the following structure axes: x2 - y3, x3 - y2, x3 - y3, x2 - y2, and the nodes of the following coordinates: (4.00, 2.00, 14.00), (5.00, 3.00, 14.00), (4.00, 4.00, 14.00), (3.00, 3.00, 14.00),

Defines nodes, closes the Nodes dialog box.

In the edit field located next to the

Selects nodes defined in the current work plane.

icon enter: 49to56, Enter Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

In the Translation vector field enter: (14.00, 0.00, 0.00) In the Number of repetitions field: 2 Execute, Close

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Selects nodes defined in the current work plane.

icon enter numbers of the recently defined nodes: 49to72, Enter Edit / Edit / Horizontal mirror

Opens the Horizontal Mirror dialog box.

In the Axis Location edit field enter 9.00

Defines the coordinate of the horizontal mirror axis.

Execute, Close

Mirrors horizontally the selected nodes, closes the Horizontal Mirror dialog box.

Geometry / Nodes

Opens the Nodes dialog box which allows defining structure nodes.

In the Coordinates field enter the coordinates of the additional node: (25.0, 9.0, 14.0), Add, Close

Defines the additional node no. 97 to which a nodal force will be applied, closes the Nodes dialog box.

Selects the base and top of the foundation. In the edit field next to the icon enter: 1 and 8 (1 8), Enter Analysis / Calculation Model / Meshing Options

Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.

In the Available Meshing Methods field select the Delaunay option, in the Mesh Generation field select the Automatic option and enter 5 in the Division 1 field, OK

Sets the meshing parameters for the selected structure components.

Selects all columns of the foundation. In the edit field next to the icon enter: 2to7, Enter Analysis / Calculation Model / Meshing Options

Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.

In the Available Meshing Methods field select the Delaunay option, in the Mesh Generation field select the Automatic option and enter 2 in the Division 1 field, OK

Sets the meshing parameters for selected structure components.

Analysis / Calculation Model / Generation

If this option is selected, the program starts to generate the calculation model of the structure (finite elements), see the picture below.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Once this option is selected, a 3D view of the structure is displayed. The defined structure is shown in the drawing below.

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Geometry Properties

/

Properties

/

Solid

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Opens the Solid Properties dialog box.

LMC on the Selection field

Enter all (all structure elements)

LMC on the material Concrete

Selects material. If the material is not available on the available material list, the user should press the icon Definition of new solid properties and add concrete to the list of materials

Apply, Close

Assigns the material to all the structure elements and closes the dialog box

Load Definition View / Projection / Xy

Once this option is selected, the structure is set on the XY plane for the Z coordinate recently defined (i.e. z = 14.0). Only the structure components located on this plane will remain visible.

LMC in the Robot Millennium layout selection field Structure Model/Loads

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout that allows defining structure loads.

LMC in the New button in the Load Types dialog box

Defines a dead load with a standard name DL1.

LMC in the Nature field, (live)

Selects the type of a load case: live.

LMC on the New button LMC on the New button LMC on the New button

Defines two cases of live load with the standard names: LL1, LL2 and LL3.

Note: The self-weight load was automatically applied to all structure elements (in the “Z” direction).

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LMC on the right toolbar

icon located in the

In the Load Definition dialog box select the Surface tab and press the

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Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Uniform Planar Load dialog box

icon Selects the load case: Live Load 1 (2:LL1).

In the Values Z: field enter - 0.5

Defines the value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate system.

Add

Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

Set the cursor in the Apply To field, switch to the graphic viewer and select the contour 8 defining the top surface of the foundation - 8_REF(1) will appear in the edit field

Displays the currently selected structure panel.

Apply

Applies the predefined load to the chosen panel contour.

In the Load Definition dialog box select Surface tab and press the

Opens the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

icon Selects the load case: Live Load 2 (3:LL2).

In the Values Z: field enter -0.9

Defines the value of the uniform load acting on surface FEs in the direction of the Z axis of the global coordinate system.

LMC on the Contour Definition button

Opens the dialog box that allows defining the contour to which the load will be applied. It may be performed either in the dialog box or graphically on the screen.

In the green field enter the points defining the contour by clicking on the appropriate points of structure axes intersections: x2 - y3, x4 - y3, x4 - y5, x2 - y5

Defines the contour to which the loads will be applied.

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LMC on the Add button located in the lower part of the dialog box Uniform Planar Load (contour)

Closes the Uniform Planar Load (contour) dialog box.

Set the cursor in the Apply To field, switch to the graphic viewer and select the contour 8 defining the top surface of the foundation - 8_REF(1) will appear in the edit field

Displays the currently selected structure panel.

Apply

Applies the predefined load to the chosen contour on the panel.

In the Load Definition dialog box select the Node tab and press the

Opens the Nodal Force dialog box.

(Nodal force) icon Selects the load case: Live Load 3.

In the Values Z: field enter -0.5, Add

Defines the concentrated force loads acting on a selected structure node.

In the field Apply To enter 97

Displays the currently selected structure panel (see the picture below). .

Apply, Close

Applies the defined load to the chosen node, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.

9.2 Structure Analysis Starts the calculation of the defined structure. Once the calculations are completed, the viewer title bar will show the following information: Finite Elements Results - available.

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9.3 Presentation of Results in the Form of Maps LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Results/Results - maps

The RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium program will open. The screen will be divided into two parts: a graphical viewer containing the structure model and the Maps dialog box. Select the load case: 4 (LL3).

On the Detailed tab, in the Values in the local system field, activate the third option in the Displacement line

Selects the visualization of the displacement for individual FEs in the local coordinate system.

Activate Maps option

Allows presentation of results obtained for FEs in the form of maps.

LMC the Apply button

Presents the structure displacement (see the picture below).

Switch off the Displacement - z option. On the Deformation tab select the active option located in the Deformations field, Apply

If this option is selected, the program will present deformation of the currently designed structure - see the picture below.

Select the load case: 3 (LL2).

In the Deformations field switch on the Active option

Activates presentation of deformation for the currently designed structure.

Apply

Presents the structure displacement.

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10. Bar Structure Design (Elasto-Plastic Analysis) This example presents definition, analysis and design of a simple 2D steel frame shown in the figure below. The definition process involves application of the truss generated by means of the library of typical structures available in the Robot Millennium program. The model considers the EC3 code requirements with respect to geometrical imperfections and elasto-plastic material analysis. Data units: (m) and (kN).

The following rules apply during structure definition: •

any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button,



{ x } stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box,



LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click.

To run structure definition start the Robot Millennium program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). In the vignette that will be displayed on the screen (it is described in

chapter 2.1 of the manual) the first icon

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(Frame 2D Design) should be selected.

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10.1 Definition of the Structure Model 10.1.1 Code Selection PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box

Materials

Selects the Materials option from the tree in the dialog box

Selection from the unfolding list: Eurocode

Materials

Selects the Eurocode material database

Modification

Opens the Material Definition dialog box

In the Name field - enter STEEL

Definition of the material of this name will be required to read in a library structure

Add, OK

Adds material named STEEL to the database

Codes

Selects the Codes option from the tree in the dialog box

Steel / Aluminum structures: EC3 (1992)

Selects EuroCode 3 for steel structure design

Selects the Codes - Actions option from the tree in the dialog box

Actions Code Combinations: EUROCODE Accept warnings of changes OK Accept warnings changes

of

Selects EuroCode for automatic code combinations the

code

the

code

Accepts adopted parameters and preferences dialog box Accept warnings of the code changes.

closes

the

Job

10.1.2 Definition of Structural Axis Geometry / Axis definition

Starts definition of structural axes. The Structural Axis dialog box is displayed on the screen

On the X tab: Position: {0} Number of Repetitions: {2} Distance: {6} Numbering: 1, 2, 3 ...

Defines parameters of the vertical structural axes

LMC the Insert button

Vertical axes have been defined and are entered to the Defined axes field

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LMC the Z tab

Starts defining parameters of the horizontal structural axes

On the Z tab: Position: {0.0} Numbering: A, B, C ...

Defines parameters of the horizontal structural axes

LMC the Insert button

First horizontal axis has been defined and entered to the Defined axes field

Position: {3.6}, Insert Position: {6.0}, Insert Position: {7.2}, Insert

The remaining axes have been defined and entered to the Defined axes field

Apply, Close

Generates defined structural axes and closes the Structural Axis dialog box. The structural axes presented in the figure below are displayed on the screen.

10.1.3 Definition of Structure Bars Geometry / Properties / Sections

Opens the Sections dialog box Opens the New Section dialog box

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Select the I-section family, in the Section field select section IPE 240, Add HEA 300, Add HEA 240, Add

Defines the following sections: IPE 240, HEA 240 and HEA 300

Close (New Section dialog box) Close (Sections dialog box)

Closes the Sections and New Section dialog boxes

Opens the Bars dialog box LMC the Bar type field and select type: Column

Selects properties of a bar to be designed. The Section field should show the recently-defined section HEA 240

LMC the Beginning field (the field background changes to green)

Starts defining bars in the structure (structure columns)

Indicate graphically or type the points of the beginning and end of bars (0,0) (0,6) and (12,0) (12,6)

Defines columns positioned on the structural lines marked with numbers 1 and 3 (in the A-C range)

LMC the Section field and select section HEA 300

Selects HEA 300 as the current section

LMC the Beginning field (the field background changes to green)

Starts defining bars in the structure (middle column)

Indicate graphically or type the points of bar beginning and end (6,0) (6,3.6)

Defines a column positioned on the structural line marked with number 2 (in the A-B range)

LMC the Bar type field and select the type: Beam

Selects properties of a bar to be designed.

LMC the Section field and select section IPE 240

Selects IPE 240 as the current section

LMC the Beginning field (the field background changes to green)

Starts defining bars in the structure (a beam between the columns)

Indicate graphically or type the points of bar beginning and end (6.0,3.6) (12.0,3.6)

Defines a beam positioned on the structural line marked with letter B (in the 2-3 range)

Close

Closes the Bars dialog box

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10.1.4 Definition of a Library Structure View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box

Structure tab, switch on the Node numbers option Others tab, switch off the Structural axis option Apply, OK Opens the Typical Structures dialog box and starts defining a library structure

LMC (twice) the (first icon in the last row)

icon

Selects the triangular truss of the 1 type. The Merge Structure dialog box is displayed on the screen in which truss parameters may be defined.

On the Dimensions tab LMC the Length L field {12}

Defines truss length (it may also be defined graphically in the graphical viewer)

LMC the Height H field {1.2}

Defines truss height (it may also be defined graphically in the graphical viewer)

LMC the option: Moments Released: No LMC the Insert tab LMC the Insertion point field Indicate graphically node no. 2 of the coordinates (0, 0, 6)

Defines the beginning node of the truss

Apply

Considers the data entered, data modification is possible

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Generates the defined truss and closes the Merge Structure dialog box. The structure defined is shown in the figure below.

OK

10.1.5 Addition of an Auxiliary Node Edit / Divide

Opens the Division dialog box

The Division field LMC • in distance

Selects the manner of defining the insertion of the division node - through a coordinate on the bar length

In the Distance from the top field enter the value 3.6 (m)

Determines the point where the auxiliary node is to be inserted

Move to the graphical viewer and indicate (LMC) the left column at its base (bar no.1)

Indicates the bar to be divided. Note: if the division through the coordinate on the bar length is defined, take note that the coordinate is calculated from the indicated bar beginning.

Close

Closes the Division dialog box

10.1.6 Definition of Brackets on Bars Geometry / Additional Attributes / Brackets

Opens the Brackets dialog box

LMC the field with the list of defined attributes, select the default one Bracket_ 0.1x1

Selects the bracket type (it will be highlighted)

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Move to the graphical viewer; indicate beginning and end of the beam (no. 4)

Defines brackets on the beam beginning and beam end

Close

Closes the Brackets dialog box

10.1.7 Definition of Supports Opens the Supports dialog box In the Supports dialog box select Fixed support

Select the fixed support type (it will be highlighted)

Move to the graphical viewer; indicate node no.1 (the bottom node of the extreme column)

Assigns the support at node no. 1.

In the Supports dialog box select Pinned support

Select the pinned support type (it will be highlighted)

Move to the graphical viewer; indicate nodes nos. 3 and 5 (bottom nodes of the remaining columns)

Assigns the supports at nodes nos. 3 and 5.

Close

Closes the Supports dialog box

10.1.8 Definition of Geometrical Imperfections Geometry / Additional Attributes / Geometrical Imperfections

Opens the Geometrical Imperfections dialog box

Opens the Imperfection definition dialog box In the Label field enter During_Assembly switch off the Automatic option switch on the User-defined option enter the value 5 (cm)

Defines parameters of a new imperfection type with the deflection value equal to 5 cm.

Add, Close

Defines the imperfection and closes the Imperfection definition dialog box

LMC in the field with the list of defined attributes, select the default imperfection type (Automatic)

Selects the imperfection type (it will be highlighted)

Move to the graphical viewer; indicate bar no. 1 (left column)

Defines the imperfection (automatic imperfection according to EC3) for the column

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LMC the field with the list of defined attributes, select the defined imperfection type During_Assembly

Selects the imperfection type (it will be highlighted)

Move to the graphical viewer; select the bottom truss chord (bar no. 5)

Defines imperfection (defined by the user) for the bottom truss chord

Close

Closes the Geometrical Imperfections dialog box

10.1.9 Definition of Load Cases in the bottom status bar

Restores a default set of attribute display

Loads / Load Types

Opens the Load Types dialog box

LMC the New button

Defines the load case with the nature: dead and standard name DL1

LMC the Nature field: Live (Live 1)

Selects the load case nature: live

LMC the New button

Defines the load case with the nature: live and standard name LL1

LMC the Close button

Closes the Load Types dialog box

10.1.10 Definition of Loads for the Generated Load Cases Selects case no. 1 - self-weight load DL1. select 1: DL1 Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Select the Bar tab

Selects Uniform load.

Values: pZ: {-3} (kN/m), Add

Defines the value of the uniform load on the bar

LMC the Apply to field - enter the bars of the external envelope: 1267

Defines the uniform load on the indicated bars - it models the weight of wall and roof cladding.

Apply

Defines a load applied to the list of bars Selects the live load case LL1.

select 2: LL1

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Select the Node tab

Selects the Nodal Force load

Load parameters, X: {10} (kN) Z: {-100} (kN)

Defines values of the nodal load.

UPDATE, November 2005

LMC the Add button provided in the bottom part of the dialog box Move to the graphical viewer presenting the structure view and indicate (LMC) nodes no. 6 and 18

Defines the nodal load which models the overhead traveling crane load.

Close

Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

10.1.11 Snow/Wind Load Generation Loads / Special loads / Wind and Snow 2D/3D

Opens the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box

Press the Auto button the Total depth field: 30, the Bay spacing field: 6 (m)

Automatically generates the external structure envelope for generation of snow/wind loads

Press the Parameters button

Opens the additional dialog box (Snow/Wind Loads 2D/3D) in which detailed parameters may be defined. The default parameters will be adopted.

Generate, OK

Pressing this button starts generation of snow/wind loads for the adopted parameters. On the screen calculation notes will be displayed presenting parameters of snow and wind load cases.

Close the text calculation notes

editor

with

the

New load cases have been generated (wind and snow loads). Closes the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box

Close

10.1.12 Generation of Automatic Code Combinations Loads / Code Combinations

Opens the Load Case Code Combinations dialog box according to EUROCODE.

LMC the Cases tab

The dialog box contains the list of loads participating in the automatic combinations and information to which natures and groups they are assigned.

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LMC the Relations tab In the Nature field select the following case types: dead, live, wind, snow

The dialog box contains the relations between cases and groups which determine the manner of combining the cases.

In the bottom part of the dialog box switch on the Simplified combinations option

Reduces the number of generated combinations by excluding those less dangerous.

Close

Closes the code combination dialog box and saves the defined relations.

10.2 Structure Analysis and Result Verification Analysis / Calculations

Runs calculations.

Results / Stresses

Opens the bar stress table.

LMC the Global extremes tab

Calculates maximal stresses in bars.

LMC

in the top right table corner

Closes the table.

File / Save

Opens the dialog box for saving.

In the File name field enter the selected name of the example, e.g. Frame_EC3

The default saving format: RTD.

LMC the Save button

Saves the example.

10.3 Elasto-Plastic Analysis In addition, the analysis of accidental hitting the workshop column by the overhead traveling crane will be performed. In this case, the analysis in the plastic range will be considered.

10.3.1 Change of Load Case Definitions Loads / Load Types

Opens the Load Types dialog box

LMC the Delete all button

Deletes all load cases

LMC the New button

Defines the load case with the default nature and the standard name DL1

Close

Closes the Load Types dialog box

Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box. Selects the Nodal Force load.

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Load parameters, X: {120} (kN) Z: {0}

UPDATE, November 2005

Defines values of the nodal load.

LMC the Add button provided in the bottom part of the dialog box Move to the graphical viewer with the structure view and indicate (LMC) node no. 18

Defines the nodal load - it models the accidental load resulting from the overhead traveling crane.

Close

Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

10.3.2 Structure Analysis Analysis / Calculations

Runs calculations

Locate the mouse cursor on the extreme column (bar 1) so that it becomes highlighted, RMC

Opens the context menu of the structure view.

Object Properties

Activates the Bar properties option containing information about bar no.1.

The Code check tab

Performs the simplified design of the steel bar. As it can be seen, it does not satisfy the conditions of code verification.

Close

Closes the Bar properties dialog box.

10.3.3 Change of Bar Sections for Elasto-Plastic Analysis Opens the Sections dialog box LMC on HEA 240 on the section list

Selects the current section

LMC the field next to the Elastoplastic analysis button

Opens the New Section dialog box with HEA 240 section selected Switches on the elasto-plastic analysis for the section selected. A new section name is defined: HEA 240EP

Add, Close

Defines the section HEA 240EP, closes the New Section dialog box.

Move to the graphical viewer with the structure view and select (LMC) external columns (bars no. 1, 2)

Changes the section of the indicated bars to HEA 240EP section. Accept the warning of changing the result status to ’not available’. Selects the current section

In the Sections dialog box LMC on IPE 240 on the section list

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Opens the New Section dialog box with IPE 240 section selected LMC the field next to the Elastoplastic analysis button

Switches on the elasto-plastic analysis for the section selected. A new section name is defined: IPE 240EP

Add, Close

Defines the section IPE 240EP, closes the New Section dialog box.

Move to the graphical viewer with the structure view and indicate (LMC) the beam (bar no. 4)

Changes the section of the indicated bar to IPE 240EP section.

Close in the Sections dialog box

Closes the Sections dialog box.

10.3.4 Structure Analysis and Result Verification Analysis / Calculations

Runs calculations.

Results / Displacements

Opens the node displacement table.

LMC the Global Extremes tab

Calculates maximal displacements of nodes (see the figure below). As it can be seen, in spite of the work in the plastic range, the structure retains stability.

File / Save as

Opens the saving dialog box.

In the File name field enter a selected name of the example e.g. Frame_EC3_EP

The default saving format - RTD.

LMC the Save button

Saves the example.

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11. Design of a Bar Structure with Added Masses This example presents definition of a 3D steel frame shown in the figure below. Data units: (m) and (kN).

Added masses will be defined for the structure as well. They will participate in static and dynamic loads. The loads will include definition of body forces (inertia loads due to rectilinear acceleration forces) and centrifugal and angular acceleration forces (inertia loads due to rotational motion forces). The example comprises also modal and harmonic analyses. NOTE:

CASES 1 and 2

This example has been made in version 17.0 of the Robot Millennium program.

CASE 3

CASE 4

The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • { x } stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To start structure definition, run the Robot Millennium system (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). In the vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) that

will be displayed on the screen, the last but one icon should be selected.

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(Frame 3D Design) in the first row

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11.1 Definition of the Structure Model PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION Opens the Sections dialog box. Opens the New Section dialog box.

The Parametric tab, section type:

Defines a new round, tubular section with determined dimensions.

Label: O 100x5 d = 10.0 (cm) t = 0.5 Add

Defines the tubular section 100x5 (mm).

Label: O 75x3 d = 7.5 (cm) t = 0.3 Add, Close

Defines the tubular section 75x3 (mm).

Close

Closes the Sections dialog box. Opens the Bars dialog box.

LMC on the BAR TYPE field and select type: Simple bar LMC on the SECTION field and select type: O 100x5 Drag

Selects bar properties.

Switches on the Drag option which enables definition of successive bars in such a way that an end of the previous bar is a beginning of the next bar.

LMC on the Beginning field (color of the field background changes to green)

Starts definition of structure bars (structure columns).

Indicate the point wih coordinates: (0,0,0) in the graphical viewer

Defines a bar beginning.

Press any digit key on the keyboard

Displays the Point dialog box for numeric definition of nodes.

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Key {Backspace}, {}, {3} Key {}, {3} Key {}, {3} Key {}, {3}, {Enter}

Defines bars that form a square.

Close in the Point dialog box

Closes the Point dialog box.

LMC on the SECTION field and select type: O 75x3

Selects bar properties.

Drag

UPDATE, November 2005

Switches off the Drag option.

LMC on the Beginning field (color of the field background changes to green)

Starts definition of structure bars (structure columns).

In the graphical viewer indicate the points with coordinates: (0, 0, 0) – (3, 0, 3) (0, 0, 3) – (3, 0, 0)

Defines two bars being diagonals of the square.

Close

Closes the Bars dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Selects structure axonometric view. Opens the Sections dialog box.

LMC on the name: O 100x5 on the section list, Close

Selects the O 100x5 section as a default one and closes the Sections dialog box.

CTRL + A

Selects all structure bars (they may also be selected with the window).

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the (dX, dY, dZ) field and enter the coordinates (0, 2.5, 0)

Defines the translation vector.

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LMC on the Number of repetitions field {3} Drag

UPDATE, November 2005

Defines how many times the copying operation is to be repeated.

Switches on the Drag option that enables automatic definition of bars between copied nodes. The bars defined automatically are assigned the properties that are currently chosen as default ones.

Execute, Close

Translates the structure and closes the Translation dialog box.

Click on the graphical viewer on the point out of the structure

Switches off the current selection of bars and nodes.

View / Projection / Xy

Selects 2D view of the structure in XY plane for Z=0.0. Opens the Supports dialog box.

In the Supports dialog box select the icon which stands for pinned support - Pinned (it will be highlighted)

Selects support type.

LMC on the Current selection field

Selects structure nodes at which structure supports will be defined. Enters the list of selected nodes: 1 4 13 16 to the Current selection field.

Switch to the graphical viewer; keeping the left mouse button pressed – select with the window nodes of the top bar and (with Ctrl key pressed) nodes of the bottom bar Apply, Close

Assigns the selected support type to the selected structure nodes; closes the Supports dialog box.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium system layouts Structure Model / Loads

Selects the layout of the Robot Millennium system which facilitates definition of structure loads (there are dialog box and table for load definition).

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LMC on the New button in the Load Types dialog box

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Defines the load case with the nature: self-weight and standard name DL1. In the first load case the self-weight of the whole structure is added automatically, which can be seen in the load table. Displays the dialog box for view selection

Selects 2D view of the structure. Selects XY projection plane (initially, for Z=0.0). Selects XY projection plane with the coordinate Z=3.0. enter {3} {Enter}

Closes the View dialog box.

Close Loads / Load Definition Self-weight and mass tab

Opens the dialog box fo load definition. Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and inertia loads. Opens the dialog box for definition of added masses.

Added masses - nodes Enter weight values (kG): X = 100 Y = 100 Z = 100 Apply to all cases Add

Defines nodal masses whose weight is 100 kG for translational degrees of freedom. The masses will participate in all the load cases (static and dynamic ones).

LMC on the Apply to field

Selects structure nodes at which nodal masses will be defined.

Switch to the graphical viewer; keeping the left mouse button pressed select with the window - all the nodes in the presented work plane

Enters the list of selected nodes: 2to14By4 3to15By4 to the Apply to field.

Apply, Close

Applies defined added masses to selected structure nodes; closes the Load Definition dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Selects structure axonometric view.

LMC on the New button in the Load Types dialog box

Defines a new load case with the nature: self-weight and the standard name: DL2.

Loads / Load Definition

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Opens the dialog box for load definition.

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Self-weight and mass tab

UPDATE, November 2005

Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and inertia loads. Opens the dialog box for definition of inertia loads due to rectilinear acceleration forces.

Body forces relative x g Enter a: Z = -1 Apply to added masses Add

Defines body forces with acceleration of gravity g for nodal masses, i.e. takes account of self-weight of added masses.

Apply, Close

For the load applied to added masses object selection is not required because action of this load concerns all the masses assigned to a given load case. Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

In the Load Types dialog box select the load nature: live enter the case name: TRANSPORT LMC on the New button

Defines a new load case with the nature: live, named: TRANSPORT.

Opens the dialog box for load definition.

Loads / Load Definition Self-weight and mass tab

Centrifugal acceleration forces

and

This load case is aimed at modeling the action of inertia forces on the frame and on additional masses due to rotational motion forces caused by (ship) rolling during transport.

Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and inertia loads.

angular

Opens the dialog box for definition of inertia loads due to rotational motion forces, i.e. angular acceleration forces (tangential forces) and velocity forces (centrifugal forces).

Enter coordinates of the rotation center C: (0.0, 0.0, -5.0) Enter to Centrifugal velocity and acceleration (Rad/..): vX = 0,5 aX = 0,2 vY = 0,2 aY = 0,1 Add

Defines inertia forces due to rotational motion about point C. Rotation about X axis with velocity v= 0.5 (rad/s) and acceleration a= 0.2 (rad/s2). Rotation about Y axis with velocity v= 0.2 (rad/s) and acceleration a= 0.1 (rad/s2).

LMC on the Apply to field

Selects structure elements for which centrifugal and angular acceleration forces will be defined.

Click on the graphical viewer; { Ctrl + A }

Selects the whole structure. Enters the list of all bars to the Apply to field.

Apply

Defines the load.

Centrifugal acceleration forces

and

Apply to added masses Add

angular

Opens again the dialog box for definition of inertia loads due to rotational motion forces.

For the current load parameters - selects the option enabling definition of load generated by added masses.

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Apply, Close

Defines the load; for the load applied to added masses object selection is not required because action of this load concerns all the masses assigned to a given load case. Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

In the Load Types dialog box, for the load nature: live enter the case name: ROTOR LMC on the New button

Defines the new load case with the nature: live, named: ROTOR.

Loads / Load Definition Node tab

This load case is aimed at modeling operation of the equipment mounted on the frame by considering its weight and vibrating force in hamonic analysis. Opens the dialog box for load definition. Opens the dialog box for definition of loads due to nodal forces.

Nodal force Enter: FZ = -0,5 (kN) Add

Defines the nodal force. Afterwards, this load will be used in harmonic analysis as an excitation load.

LMC on the Apply to field

Selects structure nodes at which nodal forces will be applied.

Switch to the graphical viewer; keeping the left mouse button pressed select with the window - four middle nodes on the top plane of the frame

Enters the list of selected nodes: 6 7 10 11 to the Apply to field.

Apply

Assigns defined forces to selected structure nodes.

Self-weight and mass tab

Goes to the tab for definition of self-weight loads and inertia loads. Opens the dialog box for definition of added masses.

Added masses – nodes

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Enter Values of weight (kG): X=0 Y=0 Z = 200 Apply to all cases Add

Defines nodal masses with weight 200 kG for the direction of freedom Z. Masses are defined only for the current load case.

LMC on the Apply to field

Selects structure nodes at which added masses will be defined.

Switch to the graphical viewer; keeping the left mouse button pressed select with the window - four middle nodes on the top plane of the frame

Enters the list of selected nodes: 6 7 10 11 to the Apply to field.

Apply, Close

Applies defined added masses to the selected structure nodes; closes the Load Definition dialog box.

Analysis / Analysis Types

Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.

In the dialog box on the load case list select – with LMC – the following case:

Selects the current case.

Change analysis type

Opens the Change Analysis Type dialog box.

Harmonic analysis OK

Changes the analysis type for case 4 to harmonic analysis. Opens the Harmonic Analysis Parameters dialog box.

Frequency enter: 20 (Hz) OK

Defines parameters of harmonic analysis. Accepts the parameters and closes the dialog box.

New

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box.

Modal

Selects modal analysis.

OK OK

Accepts default parameters of modal analysis and closes the dialog box.

Close

Closes the Analysis Type dialog box.

Loads / Mass Table

Opens the table of added masses.

LMC on the first column for mass definition FZ=200(kG)

Changes the case to which added masses are assigned. Masses may be assigned to a single case or to all static or dynamic cases.

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Set the dynamic

following

on

the

list:

UPDATE, November 2005

Assigns the mass to all dynamic cases, i.e., in this example, to cases of harmonic and modal analyses.

{Enter} LMC on the Values tab in the table

in the mass table

Goes to the Values tab, checks definitions of added masses. Closes the Added masses table.

Loads / Combinations

Opens the Combination Definition / Modification dialog box.

OK in the dialog box for definition of combination parameters

Accepts combination Combinations dialog box.

Select case 1 from Case list, enter the factor to the Factor field

Defines combination cases and factors. Note: if ”auto” is selected in the Factor field, then combination factors will be adopted automatically according to the code assumed in Job Preferences.

LMC on for the selected case, next, repeat the selection for cases nos. 2 and 3,

parameters.

Opens

the

Defines the combination of cases 1+2+3, as shown below:

Apply

New

Defines a new combination.

OK in the dialog box for definition of combination parameters

Accepts combination parameters; opens the Combinations dialog box.

Select cases and move them to the

Defines the combination of cases 1+2+4; closes the Combinations dialog box.

field with combination definition for cases 1, 2 and 4. Apply, Close

11.2 Calculations and Result Analysis Starts calculations of the defined structure. LMC on the field for selection of layouts of the Robot Millennium system Results / Results

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Opens the RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium system. The monitor screen will then be split into three parts: graphical viewer with a structure model, Diagrams dialog box and table presenting reaction values.

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RMC, Display

Opens the dialog box for selection of structure attributes to be displayed.

LMC on the Loads tab

Goes to the tab for selection of structure attributes concerned with loads to be displayed.

Symbols

Switches on display of forces that automatically for certain types of loads.

are

generated

Forces generated automatcally OK On the top selection bar select 2: DL2

On the top selection bar: select 3: TRANSPORT

LMC on

in the bottom toolbar

Selects the current load case, the program displays nodal forces generated automatically for added masses in the body force load.

Selects the current load case, the program displays linear and nodal foces generated automatically for added masses and bars in the rotational motion load.

Restores the default set of displayed attributes.

Select the Deformation tab in the Diagrams dialog box Switch on the Deformation option

Selects presentation of structure deformations for the selected load case.

LMC on the Apply button

Presents structure deformations (see the figure below); similarly, diagrams of other quantities available in the Diagrams dialog box may be presented.

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Switch off the Deformation option in the Diagrams dialog box, Apply Results / Stresses

Opens the Stresses result table.

On the top selection bar

Selects the combination 6 and 7 as the current case in the table.

enter 6 and 7 {Enter} RMC in the table Table Columns

Opens the Bar value selection dialog box from the context menu in the table.

Switch off the stress options: axial

Excludes the columns with results for stresses due to axial forces and bending from the table. Closes the dialog box with parameters.

bending OK LMC on the Global extremes tab in the table in the stress table

Goes to the tab where maximum and minimum values are displayed for the quantities and selection set in the table. Closes the Stresses table.

Results / Advanced / Modal Analysis

Opens the Dynamic Analysis Results table.

On the top selection bar

Select the modal analysis case.

select case 5: Modal

As it can be seen, the frequency of harmonic excitation (20 Hz) does not cause resonance with values of eigenvibration frequency.

in the table with the dynamic analysis results

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Closes the Dynamic Analysis Results table.

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12. Definition of a PushOver Analysis Case The example presents a definition of a PushOver analysis. The approach allows the user to estimate the state of a structure after an earthquake based on the capacity curve (which is the result of the analysis) and on the assigned code coefficients defining the seismic zone. A simple 3D steel frame presented below will be defined in the example. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the last but one icon selected.

in the first row (Frame 3D Design) should be

NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.

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12.1 Structure Model Definition PERFORMED OPERATION

Structure Model/Bars

DESCRIPTION Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

While the graphical field is displaying the structure view as active (highlighted), select from the menu: View / Projection / Yz

The structure will be presented as projected on the yz plane (x coordinate is assumed to equal 0).

LMC on the Bar Type field and select Column LMC on the Section field and select (W 12x96)

Selects bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the W 12x96 section is not available on the list, the … user should press the ( ) button located beside the Section field and add this section to the active section list in the New section dialog box

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End fields. (0,0,0) (0,0,11.5), Add (0,0,11.5) (0,0,23), Add (0,20,0) (0,20,11.5), Add (0,20,11.5) (0,20,23), Add

Defines four columns of the frame.

LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select Beam LMC on the Section field and select (HP 10x42)

Starts definition of a beam and selects its properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the HP 10x42 section is not available on the list, the … user should press the ( ) button located beside the Section field and add this section to the active section list in the New section dialog box

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of beams in the structure.

Enter the following points in the Beginning and End fields. (0,0,11.5) (0,20,11.5), Add (0,0,23) (0,20,23), Add

Defines two beams.

LMC on the Bar Type field in the Bars dialog box and select Simple bar LMC on the Section field and select (L 1.5x1.5x0.1875)

Starts definition of bracings and selects their properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the L 1.5x1.5x0.1875 section is not available on the … list, the user should press the ( ) button located beside the Section field and add this section to the active section list in the New section dialog box

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bracings in the structure.

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Enter the following points to the Beginning and End fields. (0,0,0) (0,20,11.5), Add (0,20,0) (0,0,11.5), Add (0,0,11.5) (0,20,23), Add (0,20,11.5) (0,0,23), Add

Defines four bracings.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model/Supports

Selects the Robot Millennium layout which allows support definition.

In the Supports dialog box, LMC on the Current Selection field (the cursor is blinking in the field)

Selects the structure nodes for which supports will be defined.

Switch to the graphic viewer; pressing the left mouse button select with the window all the lower column nodes

Selected nodes 1 and 4 will be entered to the Current. Selection field.

From the Supports dialog box select the fixed support icon (the icon will be highlighted)

Selects the support type.

LMC on the Apply button

Selected support type will be assigned to the chosen structure nodes; the defined structure is displayed in the drawing below.

LMC on the field for selection of the Robot Millennium program layout Structure Model/Start

Selection of the initial Robot Millennium program layout.

View / Projection / YZ View / Display Move to the Structure tab Switch on display of numbers of nodes and bars as well as supports.

Geometry / Properties / Sections

Selects the bar section.

From the Sections dialog box select the HP 12x63 section

The selected section will be assigned to the bars created by the dragging option - e.g. Translate with the Drag option turned on.

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LMC on the Close button

Closes the Sections dialog box.

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Selects the isometric structure view.

LMC in the list of the bar selection

Selects all columns and beams, i.e. bars 1 to 6.

Enter the numbers of all columns and beams press Enter on the keyboard LMC in the list of the node selection

Selects beginning and end nodes of both beams, i.e. nodes 2 3 5 6.

Enter the numbers of the beam nodes press Enter on the keyboard Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

LMC on the Drag check box

Turns on the dragging option so that the successive copies of the selected nodes are joined together by bars.

LMC on the Number of repetitions field and enter the value: (2)

Defines the number of repetitions for the performed translation operations.

LMC on the Translation vector field and enter the vector: (20,0,0)

Defines the translation vector.

LMC on the Execute button

Copies the selected elements.

LMC on the View edit viewer

Click on the screen ouside the structure to clear the bar and node selection lists.

LMC in the list of the bar selection

Selects all bracings, i.e. bars 7 to 10.

Enter the numbers of all bracings press Enter on the keyboard LMC on the Number of repetitions field and enter the value: (1)

Defines the number of repetitions for the performed translation operations.

LMC on the Translation vector field and enter the vector: (40,0,0)

Defines the translation vector.

Execute, Close

Translates the bracings and closes the Translation dialog box.

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12.2 Definition of the PushOver Analysis Case LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout Structure Model/Loads

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the structure load definition.

LMC on the New button located in the Load Types dialog box

Defines a dead load (self-weight) with a standard name DL1.

Analysis / Analysis types

Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.

LMC on the New button

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box.

LMC on the OK button

Opens the Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box.

LMC on the OK button

Defines a new modal analysis case with the default parameters assigned.

LMC on the New button

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box.

LMC on the PushOver option LMC on the OK button

Opens the dialog box for definition of the PushOver analysis case.

LMC on the Case field: PushOver

Defines the name of the PushOver case.

LMC on the Node number field: (3)

Defines the controlling node, the displacement of this node is checked at each load increment.

LMC on the Direction field, select: (UX+)

Defines direction of an external factor affecting the structure in the global coordinate system.

LMC on the Maximum displacement field: 8 (in)

Defines the maximum displacement in the selected node.

LMC on the According to unit acceleration in the given direction option

Defines the method of the load definition.

LMC on the Parameters button

Opens the dialog box for definition of the Arc-length method parameters.

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LMC on the Load increment number field: (20)

Defines the number of the load increments.

LMC on the OK button

Applies the changes and closes the dialog box.

While in the Push over dialog box LMC on the OK button

Closes the Push over dialog box and defines a new PushOver case.

LMC on the Close button in the Analysis Type dialog box

Closes the Analysis Type dialog box.

LMC in the list of the load case selection

Selects the modal case.

select the modal case: (2) Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

While on the Self-weight and mass tab LMC on the Added masses - nodes

Opens the Nodal mass dialog box.

icon LMC on the X field: 22 (kip) LMC on the Y field: 22 (kip) LMC on the Z field: 22 (kip)

Defines the values of the added masses.

LMC on the Add button

Accepts the definition of added masses.

While in the Load Definition dialog box LMC on the Apply to field: (all) Apply, Close

Applies the added masses to all the nodes. Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

12.3 Definition of a Non-linear Hinge LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

Geometry / Additional attributes / Non-linear Hinges

Opens the Non-linear Hinges dialog box.

LMC on the New hinge type icon

Opens the Non-linear Hinge Definition dialog box.

LMC on the Label field: Hinge_1

Defines the name of the hinge label.

LMC on the Definition of hinge model button

Opens the Definition of non-linear hinge model dialog box.

LMC on the Model name field: Model_MY

Defines the name of the hinge model.

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LMC on the Add button

Creates the hinge model.

LMC on the Points tab

Switches to the Points tab.

LMC on the following fields: • point B column X: (0.01) • point B column Y: (37) • point C column X: (0.05) • point C column Y: (45) • point D column X: (0.05) • point D column Y: (8) • point E column X: (0.09) • point E column Y: (8)

Creates a diagram of the hinge model (see the drawing below).

LMC on the Parameters tab

Switches to the Parameters tab.

LMC on the Type field, select: (moment-rotation)

Defines the type of the hinge, in that case it is moment versus rotation, thus the previously defined column Y stands for moment and X stands for rotation.

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LMC on the Unloading method and select: (elastic)

Defines the unloading method, in that case return is carried out along the same path as while loading.

LMC on the OK button

Accepts the definition of the hinge model, closes the dialog box.

While in the Non-linear Hinge Definition dialog box: LMC on the MY option (if necessary LMC on the other check boxes to deactivate them)

It activates the MY option.

LMC on the MY field and select: (Model_MY)

Selects previously defined hinge model.

Add, Close

Accepts the definition of the hinge label and closes the Nonlinear Hinge Definition dialog box.

While in the Non-linear Hinges dialog box: select the Hinge_1 label

Selects the previously defined hinge label.

LMC on the relative option LMC on the x= field: (0.1)

Sets the relative postion on the bar as x=0.1.

LMC on the Current Selection field: 1, 3, 15, 17, 25, 27, Apply

Applies the label Hinge_1 at the relative position x=0.1 to the lower colums.

LMC on the Current Selection field: 11to14, 19to24, Apply

Applies the label Hinge_1 at the relative position x=0.1 to the all beams except for the ones from the braced walls.

LMC on the relative option LMC on the x= field: (0.9)

Sets the relative postion on the bar to x=0.9.

LMC on the Current Selection field: 11to14, 19to24, Apply

Applies the label Hinge_1 at the relative position x=0.9 to all the beams except for the ones from the braced walls.

Close

Closes the Non-linear Hinges dialog box.

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12.4 Structure Analysis Starts calculations of the defined structure LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Results/Results

Opens the RESULTS layout of the Robot Millennium program. The screen will be divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the structure model, the Diagrams dialog box and a table with reaction values.

12.5 Result Analysis Displays results for the push over case. Select: (3: Push over) Select the NTM tab from Diagrams dialog box Turn on the MY moment option

the

Displays the structure MY moment for the selected load case.

Select the Deformation tab from the Diagrams dialog box Turn on the Deformation option

Displays the structure deformation for the selected load case.

LMC on the Apply button

Displays structure deformation and MY moment diagram.

Loads / Select Case Component

Opens the Case component dialog box.

LMC on the Current component field

Goes through the components up to the Number of components.

Close

Closes the Case component dialog box.

Turn off the MY moment and Deformation option in the dialog box, Apply

Turns off result display.

12.6 Results - Diagrams of PushOver Analysis Results / Advanced / PushOver Analysis - Diagrams

Opens the Pushover analysis dialog box.

LMC on the Add button

Opens the Diagram definition dialog box.

LMC on the UX option

Displays the UX displacement diagram.

LMC on the Case field and select: (3: Push over)

Selects the PushOver case.

LMC on the Node field: (3)

Selects node 3 for which the UX displacement diagram is created.

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Add, Close

Confirms the definition of the diagram and closes the Diagram definition dialog box. Note that the default diagram name is: 3_Displacement_UX_3

While in the Pushover analysis dialog box:

Moves all the diagrams from the Available diagrams panel to the Presented diagrams panel.

LMC on the

button

LMC on the Apply button

Opens the Diagrams of push over analysis viewer with Presented diagrams displayed.

While in the Diagrams of push over analysis viewer LMC on the cross in the upper right corner While in the Pushover analysis dialog box LMC on the Close button

Closes the Diagrams of push over analysis viewer and the Pushover analysis dialog box.

12.7 Results – Capacity Curve Results / Advanced / Capacity curve

Opens the PushOver curve dialog box.

LMC on the Apply button

Opens the Pushover curve diagrams viewer Displacement - reaction sum diagram displayed.

LMC on the Diagram type field and select: (Capacity spectrum)

Selects the type of a diagram to be displayed in the viewer.

LMC on the Selected spectrum option

Activates the display of selected demand spectrum.

demand

LMC on the Lines of constant period option

Activates the display of constant period lines.

LMC on the Reduced (damping) option

Activates the display of reduced spectra.

spectra

LMC on the Histeretic damping B option

Selects the structure type B.

LMC on the Apply button

Displays the capacity curve.

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13. RC Beam Design - ACI Code (Robot Stand-Alone Mode) This example presents the definition, analysis and design of an RC beam. Data units: (ft), (kip), (kip*ft), (ksi). Code: ACI 318/99 The following rules apply during beam definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click, • LMD and RMD - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Double click and the Right Mouse button Double click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

in the third row (RC Beam Design) should be selected.

NOTE: The American material database has been used in this example.

13.1 Configuration (Program Preferences) PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Tools / Preferences

Opens the Preferences dialog box.

LMC on the Languages option in the Preferences tree

Selects the Languages option dialog box.

LMC on the Regional Settings field and select United States

Defines the United States settings as default Regional Settings.

OK

Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.

Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.

LMC on the Units and Format option in the Job Preferences tree

Selects the Units and Format option dialog box.

LMC on the Imperial button inside the Default Units field

Defines Imperial units as Default Units.

OK

Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.

NOTE:

It is necessary to perform actions described above if the program has not been installed in the English version or the Windows® operating system has not had the US regional settings.

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13.2 Beam Design PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Twice LMC on the Add Span button in the Elevation Definition dialog box LMC on the Cantilever Right field

Defines a right side cantilever.

LMC on the Span Geometry tab

Switches to the Span Geometry tab.

Select graphically the cantilever. LMC in the Length field and enter value 5.0, Apply LMC on the middle span on the Elevation - Beam viewer

Selects graphically the middle span of the beam.

LMC in the Length field and enter 12+1/2*12= Apply

Defines the middle span length using a simple mathematical operation in Robot Millennium edit field.

LMC in the Width field (Left support) and enter 1ft8in= LMC on the Width field (Right support) and enter 1ft8in= Apply

Defines the support width using a unit conversion in Robot Millennium edit field.

LMC in the middle span in the Elevation - Beam viewer

Selects graphically the middle span of the beam.

LMC on the h field (Basic Dimensions) in the Section Definition dialog box and enter value 30.0 (in), Apply LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout RC Beam / Beam - openings

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the beam opening definition. The screen will be divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the beam elevation at the upper side, a Beam - openings table in bottom left side and the Openings dialog box at bottom right side.

LMC on the middle span on the Elevation - Beam viewer

Selects graphically the middle span of the beam.

LMC in the Name field of the Openings dialog box and enter A as the opening name

Defines the opening name.

LMC on the Start field and select left upper

Defines the coordinate system of the opening position.

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LMC on the X Local field and enter value 8.5, next LMC on the Z Local field and enter value 2.0

Defines the opening position on the span.

LMC on the Adjoining beam option

Defines the opening type.

LMC on the Lx field and enter value 1.0, next LMC on the Lz field and enter value 2.0

Defines opening dimensions.

Add

Adds the A opening to the span.

LMC on the cantilever Elevation - Beam viewer

on

the

Selects graphically the beam’s cantilever.

LMC on the Name field of the Openings dialog box and enter B as the opening name

Defines the opening name.

LMC on the Round option

Defines the opening type.

LMC on the X Local field and enter value 2.0, next LMC on the Z Local field and enter value 1.0

Defines the opening position on the span.

LMC on the D field and enter value 1.0

Defines opening dimensions.

Add

Adds the B opening to the span.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout RC Beam / Beam - loads

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the beam loads definition. The screen will be divided into three parts: a graphic viewer containing the beam static model at the upper side, a Beam - loads table in bottom left side and the Loads dialog box at bottom right side. Defines a self-weight load.

, Add

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Select live load LMC on the Value p1 field and enter value 2.0, Add

Select concentrated

Select live load LMC on the Suspended option LMC on the Value F field and enter value 12.0, Add

Analysis / Calculation options

Opens the Calculation options dialog box.

LMC on the Concrete tab. LMC in the list of the typical concrete resistance. Select fc’=4.0 ksi concrete

Defines concrete parameters.

LMC on the Longitudinal reinforcement tab. LMC in the steel list. Select Grade 60 steel.

Defines longitudinal reinforcement steel grade.

LMC on the None button (Bar list) to remove the default bars list. LMC in the #8, #9, #10, #11 options to define acceptable bar list

Defines the longitudinal reinforcement acceptable bar list.

LMC on the Transversal reinforcement tab. LMC on the steel list. Select Grade 40 steel.

Defines the transversal reinforcement steel grade.

LMC on the #6 option to add bar #6 to acceptable bar list.

Defines transversal reinforcement acceptable bar list.

LMC on the Save As … button

Opens Enter the name dialog box.

LMC on the edit control, highlight Standard text and enter test_rnf as a new name, OK, OK

Saves user calculation options.

Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern

Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.

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LMC on the reinforcement tab

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Transversal

LMC on the Suspended load button LMC on the second Reinforcement Method option, OK

See the picture on the next page.

LMC on the Structural Reinforcement tab

LMC on the Consideration of load capacity option, OK Analysis / Calculation

Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.

LMC on the When the calculations are completed go to the: Results layout option LMC on the Calculations button

Starts the calculations

LMC on the OK button in the Reinforcement concrete and Calculation Errors dialog boxes.

Accepts the calculation warning: Axial force will not be taken into consideration in calculations.

LMC on the Span option

Defines range of the graphic viewer.

Select Reinforcement

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Select Deflection LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout RC Beam / Beam - reinforcement

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the beam reinforcement presentation. The screen will be divided into four parts: two graphic viewers containing the beam elevation at the upper right side and beam section at the upper left side, a Beam - Reinforcement Table at bottom right side and Reinforcing bars dialog box at bottom left side.

Results / Calculation note

Opens the Calculation note dialog box.

LMC on OK button

Generates the calculation note.

LMC on the cross in the upper right corner

Closes the Calculation note editor.

File / Save Project Component As

Opens the Project Component Save dialog box.

LMC on the cross near Standard Level field in the Structure tree

Unfolds the Standard Level sub-tree.

LMD on the Beam1 field

Highlights “Beam1” - standard sub-project name.

Enter “My beam” in the highlighted field, OK

Renames the subproject name.

LMC on the OK button in the Robot message box

Accepts data saving on the standard project.

Enter the following text: “Examples Beam ACI” in the File Name field in Widows® Save As… dialog box, Save

Saves Robot Millennium project as “Examples Beam ACI.rtd” file.

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Results / Drawings

Generates Final Drawings. The Robot Millennium program layout is changed automatically.

File / Print

Opens the Print dialog box.

OK

Prints final drawings of reinforcement.

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14. RC Column Design - ACI Code (Robot Stand-Alone Mode) This example presents the definition, analysis and design of an RC column. Data units: (ft), (kip), (kip*ft), (ksi). Code: ACI 318/99 The following rules apply during column definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. • LMD and RMD - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Double click and the Right Mouse button Double click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

in the third row (RC Column Design) should be selected.

NOTE: The American material database has been used in this example.

14.1 Configuration (Program Preferences) PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Tools / Preferences

Opens the Preferences dialog box.

LMC on the field Languages in Preferences tree

Selects the Languages option tab.

LMC on the Regional Settings field and select the United States

Defines the United States settings as default Regional Settings.

Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.

LMC on the field Units and Format in Job Preferences tree

Selects the Units and Format option tab.

LMC on the Imperial button inside the Default Units field

Defines the Imperial units as Default Units.

OK

Applies new preference.

NOTE:

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It is necessary to perform actions described above if the program has not been installed in the English version or the Windows® operating system has not had the US regional settings.

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14.2 Column Design PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

LMC on the b field on the Section Definition dialog box and enter value 18.0 (in)

Defines a column section width.

LMC on the h field on the Section Definition dialog box and enter value 18.0 (in)

Defines a column section height.

LMC on the Label field and enter 18in-18in

Defines a column section name.

OK

Applies the section definition.

Structure / Dimensions

Opens the Elevation Dimensions dialog box.

LMC on the L field and enter value 16.0

Defines the column height.

LMC on the Hb field and enter value 2.0

Defines a beam thickness.

LMC on the Hp field and enter 10in =

Defines a slab thickness using a unit conversion in Robot edit field.

OK

Accepts definition of the Elevation Dimensions.

Structure / Buckling Length

Opens the Buckling Length dialog box.

LMC on the Sway option inside the Direction Y field

Defines the structure type in the Y direction.

Opens the Sway structure dialog box.

inside the Direction Y field Defines the buckling coefficient 1.60 for typical structure column in a weak beam. , OK Opens the Non - Sway structure dialog box.

inside the Direction Z field

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Opens the Adjoining Beam Parameters - Z - ACI318/99 dialog box. LMC Unfold the Section list at the second row. Select the B8x16 section

Selects the left side adjoining beam section.

LMC on the Length field at the second row. Enter value 25.0

Defines the left side adjoining beam length.

Unfold the Section list at the third row. Select the B8x16 section

Selects the right side adjoining beam section.

LMC on the Length field at the third row. Enter value 25.0

Define the right side adjoining beam length.

Unfold the Section list at the fourth row. Select the 18in-18in section

Selects the top column section.

LMC on the Length field at the fourth row. Enter value 25.0

Define the top column length.

OK

Define the buckling coefficient 0.68 by frame node stiffness (adjoining element stiffness).

Apply, Close

Applies definition of the Buckling Length.

Structure / Loads

Opens the Loads dialog box.

LMC on the Nature at first record of Loads table field. Unfold list and select the dead load

Selects Nature of the new load case.

Enter the following forces in the N, Myt, Myb, Mnsy/My, Mzt, Mzb, β fields (300.0, 30.0, 30.0, 0.10, 25.0, 20.0, 1.0)

Defines a dead load with a standard name DL1

LMC on the Nature at second record of Loads table field. Unfold list and select the live load

Selects Nature of the new load case.

Enter the following forces in the N, Myt, Myb, Mnsy/My, Mzt, Mzb, β fields (250.0, 10.0, 20.0, 0.50, 10.0, 20.0, 0.50)

Defines a live load with a standard name LL1

LMC on the Nature at third record of Loads table field. Unfold list and select the wind

Selects Nature of the new load case.

Enter the following forces in the N, Myt, Myb, Mnsy/My, Mzt, Mzb, β fields (20.0, 10.0, 5.0, 1.0, 30.0, 80.0, 0.0), OK

Defines a wind load with a standard name WIND1

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Analysis / Calculation options

Opens the Calculation options dialog box.

LMC in the C field inside Cover frame and enter value 2.0in

Defines a size of the cover.

LMC on the Fixed option

Defines the cover size as a fixed value.

LMC on the tab Concrete. LMC in the list of the typical concrete resistance. Select fc’=5.5ksi concrete

Defines concrete parameters.

LMC on the reinforcement tab

Changes to the Longitudinal reinforcement tab.

Longitudinal

LMC on the None button in Bar list frame to remove the default bar list. LMC on the #9, #10, #11 option to define acceptable bar list

Defines the longitudinal reinforcement acceptable bar list.

LMC on the reinforcement tab

Changes to the Transversal reinforcement tab.

Transversal

LMC on the #3 option to switch off this bar and LMC on the #6 option to add bar #6 to acceptable bar list

Defines the transversal reinforcement acceptable bar list.

LMC on the Save As … button

Opens the Enter the name dialog box.

LMC on the edit field, highlight Standard text and enter test_rnf as a new name, OK OK

Saves user calculation options.

Analysis / Calculations

Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.

LMC on the When the calculations are completed go to the: Results layout option LMC on the Calculations button

Defines change of the Robot Millennium layout after calculation.

LMC on the first field Intersection dialog box

in

the

Press Down Arrow on the keyboard

Changes the current combination.

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LMC on the Close button in the Intersection dialog box

Closes the Intersection dialog box.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout RC Column / Column reinforcement

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the beam reinforcement presentation. The screen will be divided into four parts: two graphic viewers containing the beam elevation at the upper right side and beam section at the upper left side, a Column - Reinforcement Table at bottom right side and Reinforcing bars dialog box at bottom left side.

File / Save Project Component As

Opens the Project Component Save dialog box.

LMC on the cross next to the Standard Level field in the Structure tree

Expands the Standard Level tree.

LMD on the Column1 field

Highlights “Column1” - standard sub project name.

Enter text “My highlight field, OK

column”

in

the

Renames the subproject name.

LMC on the OK button in the Robot message box

Accepts data saving on the standard project.

Enter the following text: “Examples Column ACI” in File Name field in the Widows® Save As… dialog box Save

Saves the Robot Millennium project as “Examples Column ACI.rtd” file.

Results / Drawings

Generates Final Drawings. The Robot Millennium program layout is changed automatically.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout RC Column / Column reinforcement

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the column reinforcement presentation.

Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern

Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.

LMC on the Shapes tab LMC on the icon near the Stirrup option

Opens the Stirrup dialog box.

Changes the Stirrups shape. , OK LMC on the icon near the Main option

Opens the Main dialog box.

Changes the main reinforcement shape. , OK, OK

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Analysis / Calculation

Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.

LMC on the When the calculations are completed go to the: Current layout option, Calculations

Defines change of the Robot Millennium layout after calculation.

LMC on the No. field in the first record in Reinforcement Table General tab

Selects the main reinforcement.

LMC on the Shape Parameters tab in the Bar properties dialog box LMC on the C field and enter value 3in=, Apply

Defines the hook length.

File / Save Project Component As

Opens the Project Component Save dialog box. Creates a new project component with a standard name Column2.

Enter the following text: “My column v.2” in highlight field, OK

Renames a standard component.

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Analysis / Drawing Parameters

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Opens the Drawing Parameters dialog box.

LMC on the Add drawing to the list option, OK Results / Drawings

Generates Final Drawings. Robot Millennium program layout is changed automatically.

Insert / Reinforcement table

Adds new drawings with global reinforcement table.

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15. RC Foundation Design - ACI Code (Robot Stand-Alone Mode) This example presents the definition, analysis and design of an RC spread footing. Data units: (ft), (kip), (kip*ft), (ksi). Code: ACI 318/99 The following rules apply during foundation definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. • LMD and RMD - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Double click and the Right Mouse button Double click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

in the third row (Foundation Design) should be selected.

NOTE: The American material and soil databases have been used in this example.

15.1 Configuration (Program Preferences) PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Tools / Preferences

Opens the Preferences dialog box.

LMC on the Languages option in the Preferences tree

Selects the Languages option dialog box.

LMC on the Regional Settings field and select United States

Defines the United States settings as default Regional Settings.

OK

Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.

Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.

LMC on the Units and Format option in the Job Preferences tree

Selects the dialog box for the Units and Format option.

LMC on the Imperial button inside the Default Units field

Defines Imperial units as Default Units.

LMC on the cross-box next to the Units and Format field in the Job Preferences tree

Unfold the Units and Format sub tree.

LMC on the Forces in Units and Format

Selects the dialog box for Forces option.

Click twice define field

next to the Stress unit

Changes the unit display precision.

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Sets the new preferences and closes the dialog box.

OK

Note:

It is necessary to perform actions described above if the program has not been installed in the English version or the Windows® operating system has not had the US regional settings.

15.2 Simple Footing Design PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Enter the following geometry parameters in the A and B field. A=9.0, B=9.0, Apply

Defines the foundation geometry.

LMC on the Pier tab and change the Pier column type to Plain, Apply

Selects the pier type.

Analysis / Calculation options

Opens the Calculation options dialog box.

LMC on the Concrete tab. LMC on the list of the typical concrete resistance. Select fc’=4.0ksi concrete

Defines concrete parameters.

LMC on the Longitudinal reinforcement tab. LMC on the steel list. Select Grade 40 steel

Defines the longitudinal reinforcement steel grade.

LMC on the None button (Bar list) to remove the default bar list. LMC on the #6, #7, #8, #9 options to define acceptable bar list

Defines the longitudinal reinforcement acceptable bar list.

LMC on the Transversal reinforcement tab. LMC on the steel list. Select Grade 40 steel.

Defines the transversal reinforcement steel grade.

LMC on the #3 option to switch off this bar and LMC on the #6 option to add bar #6 to acceptable bar list.

Defines the transversal reinforcement acceptable bar list.

LMC on the Save As … button

Opens the Enter the name dialog box.

LMC on the edit control, highlight Standard text and enter test_rnf as a new name, OK

Saves user calculation options.

OK

Closes the Calculation options dialog box.

Foundations / Foundations - load

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Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the foundations load definition. The screen will be divided into four parts: a graphic viewer containing the foot model at the upper right side, the Foundations - load and Foundations - site dialog boxes at upper central and upper left side and a table with foundation load values at center.

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Selects the forces type.

Enter the following forces in the N, Fx, Fy, Mx, My fields (55.0, 10.0, -20.0, 15.0, -15.0), Add

Defines a dead load with a standard name DL1

Selects the type of a load case: live. live load Enter the following forces in the N, Fx, Fy, Mx, My fields (30.0, 10.0, -20.0, 15.0, -15.0), Add

Defines a live load with a standard name LL1

Selects the type of a load case: wind. wind Enter the following forces in the N, Fx, Fy, Mx, My fields (20.0, -25.0, 10.0, -10.0, -25.0), Add

Defines a live load with a standard name WIND1

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout Foundations / Foundations - soil

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for the foundations soil definition. The screen will be divided into two parts: Foundations - site dialog boxes at upper left side and Foundations - soil dialog box at central with graphic viewer containing the foot model and soil layers, soil table and backfill parameters.

LMC in the Backfill heights N1 field and enter the value: (2.0)

Defines a Backfill height.

LMC on the Pier level Na field and enter 8in=

Defines a column Pier level using a Robot Millennium control unit conversion (in -> ft).

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LMC on the Minimum reference level Nf field and enter the value (-1.5)

Defines a Minimum reference level.

LMC on the Name field in the first record in soil table and unfold the list of available soils. Select the Very fine sands.

Selects the typical soil (Very fine sands) from Robot Millennium soil database.

Switch on the Stress Allowable option. LMC on the edit field (Stress) and enter the value (0.0138). LMC on the Apply button

Applies the soil definition.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout Foundations / Foundations - result

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for a presentation of foundations calculation result. The screen will be divided into two parts: a graphic viewer containing the foot model at the left side, Foundations - result dialog boxes at right side.

LMC on the Capacity button in the Foundations - Results dialog box

Selects the design combination for capacity.

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LMC on the Punching / Shear button in the Foundations - Results dialog box

Selects the design combination for punching.

Analysis / Calculation

Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.

LMC on the Calculations button

Starts the Calculations and optimization for the defined foundation.

LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium layout Foundations / Foundations Reinforcement

Selects the Robot Millennium program layout allowing for a presentation of foundation reinforcement. The screen will be divided into five parts: three graphic viewers containing footing model projections, Foundation - Reinforcement Table and Reinforcing bars dialog box.

LMC on the No. field in the fourth record on the Reinforcement Table General tab.

Selects the bottom reinforcement in Y direction.

Opens the Main Bar shape dialog box.

Selects the new shape. , OK Apply

Applies the new shape to reinforcement in Y direction.

LMC on the No. field in the fifth record on the Reinforcement Table General tab

Selects the bottom reinforcement in X direction.

Opens the Main Bar shape dialog box.

Selects the new shape. , OK Apply

Applies the new shape for reinforcement in X direction.

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File / Save Project Component As

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Opens the Project Component dialog box. Creates a new project component with a standard name Foundation2.

Enter the following text: “foot A” in the highlighted field, OK

Renames a standard component.

Enter the following text: “Examples Foot ACI” in File Name field in the Widows® Save As… dialog box, Save

Saves the Robot Millennium project as “Examples Foot ACI.rtd” file.

Results / Drawings

Generates Final Drawings. The Robot Millennium program layout is changed automatically.

File / Print

Opens the Print dialog box.

OK

Prints the “foot A” reinforcement.

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16. Definition of a 2D Frame The example presents the definition and analysis of a 2D steel frame as shown in the figure below. Data units: (ft) and (kip).

The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the first icon

in the first row (Frame 2D Design) should be selected.

NOTE: The American section database (AISC) has been used in this example.

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16.1 Structure Definition 16.1.1 Definition of a Working Language and Codes PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Tools / Preferences

Opens the Preferences dialog box shown in the figure below which allows to select/modify the Robot Millennium program parameters.

Place the cursor in the Languages line and select the United States option in the unfolded list of available languages

Setting regional parameters results in adjusting national codes, material and regulations.

Accept

Closes the Preferences dialog box and saves the changes made.

Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box which allows to select/modify the Robot Millennium program parameters. Compare the code and actions correctness to the settings shown in the figures below.

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Closes the Job Preferences dialog box and saves the changes made.

OK

16.1.2 Structure Axis Definition Geometry / Axis Definition

Opens the Structural Axis dialog box which is used to define the structure's axes.

While being on the X tab set the Numbering option as A B C… switch to the Position field and enter: {0} Insert, {18} Insert, {32} Insert

Defines parameters of the vertical structural axes.

Switch to the Z tab, enter the following coordinates of the axes: {0.0} Insert, {10.5} Insert, {14.0} Insert, Numbering: 1, 2, 3…

Defines parameters of the horizontal structural axes.

Apply, Close

Creates the defined structural the Structural axis dialog box.

If the axes are not visible the user should select the View / Zoom / Zoom All command from the main menu

The initial view of the structure should be displayed on the screen.

axes

and

closes

16.1.3 Structure Axis Modification RMC on the symbol (in the example B) referring to the required axis, select the Object Properties command in the context menu

Opens the Structural Axis Modification dialog box, which is used for structural axis modification as shown in the figure below.

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Switch to the Distance field and enter the {2.00} distance or set it graphically

Sets a displacement value for the selected structure axis

Apply, Close

Closes the Structural Axis Modification dialog box. Defined structural axes are shown in the figure below.

16.1.4 Column and Beam Definition

Structure Model/Bars

Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

LMC on the Bar Type field and select Column LMC on the Section field and select (W 8x28)

Selects bar properties. The section from the American section database (AISC) has been used. Note: If the W 8x28 section is not available on the list, the … user should press the ( ) button located beside the Section field and add this section to the active section list in the New Section dialog box.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of bars in the structure (structure columns).

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Switch to the graphic viewer and indicate by means of the mouse the following intersection points of the consecutive axes. - A1-A3, - B1-B3, - C1-C2

Defines three columns of the frame.

LMC on the Bar Type field and select Beam LMC on the Section field and select (W 10x45)

Selects bar properties. Note: If the W 10x45 section is not available on the list, the user should repeat the operations as in the case of the W 8x28 section.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green)

Starts definition of a bar in the structure (structure beam).

Switch to the graphic viewer and indicate by means of the mouse the following intersection points of the consecutive axes. - C2-B2

Defines the beam of the frame.

Note: If the section database AISC is not available in the Database field the user should add it. To do so select the Tools / Job Preferences / Section Database command from icon (it adds a new database to the the menu. Click the list) and select AISC database from list of the available section databases.

16.1.5 Truss Definition Truss Section Definition Opens the Sections dialog box. Opens the New Section dialog box. Set the following options: Database: AISC, Family: P, Section: 2.5, Add, Close, Close

Closes the New Section dialog box. The P 2.5 section appears in the List of Active Sections, closes the Sections dialog box

Definition of the Upper Chord LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

Geometry / Objects / Arc

Opens the Arc dialog box.

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Select the arc definition method: Begin - Middle - End; Enter the following coordinates of the arc points: Begin. (0,14) Middle (10,16) End (20,14) In the Sides field enter: 10, Switch on the Fixed number and Explode options Apply, Close

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Defines arc. Closes the Arc dialog box. Note: During the arc definition the last defined section (e.g. P 2.5) was applied.

The Lower Chord RMC in the graphical viewer and indicate the Select option; then select the arc with nodes by means of the window-shaped cursor.

Selects the recently defined arc.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

Set the following parameters in the opened dialog box: Translation Vector field: (0,10) Edit Mode field: switch on the Copy option, leave the default values of the remaining parameters Execute, Close

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Displays the initial view of the structure Deselect the copied arc, then select all nodes in the copied arc - indicate them with the mouse cursor holding the CTRL key pressed View / Tables

Opens the Tables: Data and Results dialog box.

Check out the Nodes option, OK

Closes the Tables: Data and Results dialog box, displays the Nodes table on the screen.

Windows / Tile Horizontally

Displays simultaneously two windows on the screen: View and Nodes

Switch to the Nodes table and select entire Z table column (by clicking on header) with CTRL key pressed

Selects the entire Z column.

Place the mouse cursor in the selected column and RMC

Opens the context menu.

Select the Fill Special option in the opened context menu

Opens the Insert to Column dialog box (see below).

Enter a new value of the coordinate Z = 14, OK

Assigns new value of Z coordinates of the selected nodes, closes the Insert to Column dialog box.

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Close the Nodes Selection dialog box Click the View viewer

table

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and

button located in the

Maximizes the View graphical viewer

View / Zoom / Zoom All

Displays the initial view of the structure

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

On the Structure tab indicate the Node numbers option, then switch to the Others tab and turn off the Structural axis option, Apply, OK

Chooses the structure attributes for presentation, closes the Display dialog box.

In order to delete the doubled nodes in the truss corners, select them using the mouse cursor with the CTRL button pressed. Then select the Edit / Correct command

There appears the Structure Correction dialog box on the screen as shown in the figure below.

Deselect the Entire Structure option (only the Geometrical Center should be active). Set the value 0.03 in the Precision field, Apply, Close

Posts Opens the Bars dialog box. LMC on the Bar Type field and select Simple bar LMC on the Section field and select (P 2)

Selects bar properties. Note: If the P 2 section is not available on the list, the user should repeat the operations as in the case of the P 2.5 section.

LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green) Switch to the graphic viewer, open the context menu and then select Snap Settings / Snap Settings option

Opens the Snap Settings dialog box.

Select the Nodes option and deselect the remaining options, press the Close button.

Chooses the parameters of cursor movement, closes the Snap Settings dialog box.

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Define posts by connecting the nodes in the bottom and top chords of the truss (9 posts) - see below

Cross-braces LMC on the Bar Type field and select Selects bar properties. Note: If the P 1.5 section is not available on the list, the user Simple bar should repeat the operations as in the case of the P 2 LMC on the Section field and select section. (P 1.5) LMC on the Beginning field (background color changes to green) Go to the graphical viewer and define the diagonals as shown in the figure below

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16.1.6 Definition of Releases on the Ends of Diagonals Geometry / Releases

Opens the Releases dialog box to apply releases to the truss diagonals.

Highlight the Pinned-Pinned release type, Close

Go to the graphical viewer. Here, indicate all the diagonals with the mouse cursor (the arrow with the release symbol). It generates releases on element ends, closes the Releases dialog box.

16.1.7 Support Definition

Structure Model/Supports

Selects the Supports layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Switch to the Supports dialog box, highlight Fixed in the support list and set the cursor in the selection field. Go to the graphical viewer and select two nodes: 1, 3 - located on axis 1

Selects the support type and nodes to which the supports will be applied.

Apply

Assigns the fixed support to the chosen nodes.

Highlight Pinned in the support list, switch to the graphic viewer and select the remaining node 5

Assigns the pinned support to the chosen node.

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16.1.8 Load Definition Selects the Loads layout from the list of the available Robot Millennium layouts.

Structure Model/Loads

Select Nature: dead in the Load Defines a dead load with a user-defined name self-weight. Types dialog box and type self - Note: the program will define automatically the self-weight on all structure bars. weight in the Name field; then, click the New button LMC on the Nature field - enter the name dead LMC on the New button

Defines a dead load with the user-defined name dead.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box. Opens the Uniform Load dialog box (see below). Click the Uniform Load located on the Bar tab

icon

Type pz = -0.70 (kip/ft) in the Z edit field (the column of p loads (kip/ft)), Add

Defines a value of the uniform load, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To field in the Load Definition dialog box and indicate beam 4 in the graphical viewer (right beam). The bar number will appear in the Apply To field, Apply

Applies the selected load to the chosen structure bar.

Opens the Nodal Force dialog box (see below). Click the Nodal Force located on the Node tab

icon

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Type Fz = -1.40 (kip) in the Z edit field (the column of p loads (kip)), Add

Defines the force value, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Apply to field then switch to the graphic viewer and select all the nodes of the upper chord. The node numbers will appear in the Apply To field, Apply

Defines loads for the second load case.

Introduce the Nature: dead and Name: purlins in the Load Types dialog box and click the New button

Defines a dead load with the user-defined name dead.

Opens the Bar Force dialog box. Click the Bar Force located on the Node tab

icon

Enter the load Fz = -0.50 (kip). Switch on the Absolute option in the Coordinate field in the bottom part of the dialog box. Type 6.00 (ft) in the "x =" edit field, Add After leaving the dialog box area, the cursor will automatically assume the selection mode. In the graphical viewer, indicate the right span, ensuring that the arrows on the bar are directed to the right, Apply

Closes the Bar Force dialog box, applies the selected bar force to the required position.

Reopen the Bar Force dialog box and repeat the above operation for the coordinates x = 12,0; adopt the same value of the Fz force

Closes the Bar Force dialog box, applies selected bar force to the required position.

Opens the Nodal Force dialog box. Click the Nodal Force

icon

Type Fz = -0.50 (kip) in the Z edit field, then click the Add button

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Applies the load value, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.

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Place the cursor in the Apply to field then switch to the graphic viewer and select all the nodes of upper chord. The node numbers will appear in the Apply To field, Apply

Applies nodal forces to the selected nodes.

Enter the Nature: live and Name: live in the Load Types dialog box and click the New button

Defines a live load with the user-defined name live.

Opens the Trapezoidal Load dialog box. Click the Trapezoidal Load located on the Bar tab

icon

Enter the following load values pz1 = - 0.35 (kip/ft) pz2 = - 0.70 (kip/ft) and the relative coordinates x1 = 0.0 x2 = 0.5 (switch on the Relative option in the bottom part of the dialog box), Add

Enters the load values and closes the Trapezoidal Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To: field and select the right span. Make sure that the arrows on the bar are directed to the right.

Applies the selected trapezoidal load to the chosen bar.

By analogy, define the load applied to the right part of the span. Load values: pz1 = - 0.70 (kip/ft) pz2 = - 0.35 (kip/ft) relative coordinates x1 = 0.5 x2 = 1.0

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Enter the Nature: wind and Name: wind from the right in the Load Types dialog box then click the New button

Defines a wind load with the user-defined name wind from the right.

Select the Uniform Load icon on the Bar tab of the Load Definition dialog

Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Enter px = - 0.15 (kip/ft), press the Add button. Apply the load to the right column

Applies the selected load.

Select the Trapezoidal Load icon

Opens the Trapezoidal Load dialog box.

Enter the load: px1 = px2 = - 0.15 (kip/ft) (make sure that pz1 and pz2 equal zero) Set the relative coordinates: x1 = 0.75 and x2 = 1, Add

Defines a trapezoidal load. Applies the defined load to the central column. Make sure that the arrows on the bar are pointed upwards, close the Trapezoidal Load dialog box.

Set the Nature: snow and Name: snow in the Load Types dialog box, confirm it pressing the New button

Defines a snow load with the user-defined name snow.

Select the Uniform Load icon on the Bar tab of the Load Definition dialog box

Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Enter the values pz = - 0.35 (kip/ft) and px = 0 (kip/ft). Switch on the Projected Load option in the bottom part of the dialog box, Add

Defines load properties, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Select the right span of the structure

Applies the defined load to the right bar in the structure.

Click the Nodal Force icon

Opens the Nodal Force dialog box

Type Fz = -0.70 (kip) in the Z edit field, then click the Add button, switch to the Apply to field, afterwards select all the nodes of the upper chord in the graphic viewer. The node numbers will appear in the Apply To field, Apply

Applies selected load to the appropriate nodes.

16.1.9 Structure Modification Structure Axis Modification Selection of the Robot Millennium layouts, Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

On the Others tab - turn on the Structural axis option, Apply, OK

Chooses the structure attributes for presentation, closes the Display dialog box.

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Geometry / Axis Definition

Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.

Define the required axis. Set Numbering to: A, B, C…and then on the X tab enter the -20.00 value in the Position field and insert it into the Set of Created Axes field by means of the Insert button, Apply, Close

Defines an additional structural axis.

View / Zoom / Zoom All

Displays the initial view of the structure

Select the truss span and the first column on the left (column no. 1) and choose the Edit / Edit / Translate command from the main menu

Selects the left column and truss span opens the Translation dialog box.

Enter the following settings in the Translation dialog box: Translation Vector / dX, dZ: (-20, 0) in the Edit Mode field, switch on the Copy option; leave the default values of the remaining settings

Defines the translation parameters.

Execute, Close

Translates selected elements of the structure, closes the Translation dialog box - see the figure below. Note: As a result of copying, there appears a new span with a column to the left of the structure. All properties of the selected structure elements have been copied including supports, loads etc.

16.1.10 Additional Load Definition

Structure Model/Loads

Selects the Loads layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

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LMC on the Nature field - set the wind option and enter the name: wind from the left, click New button

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Defines a wind load with the user-defined name: wind from the left.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box. Select the Uniform Load icon on the Bar tab of the Load Definition dialog box

Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Enter px = 0.15 (kip/ft) (make sure that pz equals zero), press Add. Apply loads to the left column, Close

Applies the selected load and closes the Load Definition dialog box

16.1.11 Load Combination Definition Loads / Combinations

Opens the Combination Definition/Modification dialog box shown in the figure below.

Set all options as shown in the dialog box above and press the OK

Creates a new combination, closes the Combination Definition/Modification dialog box. There appears a new Combinations dialog box that allows the user to define and modify the factors of a given combination.

Factor Definition

Opens the Combination Factors dialog box.

Set the arrow in the live label, switch to the Factor edit field and introduce the new value 1.45, Change, Close

Changes the combination factor for the live load, closes the Combination Factors dialog box.

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Press the button located in the Combinations dialog box

Apply, Close

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Transfers all combination cases from the left to the right panel (see the dialog box below). Note: if the Auto option is set, the factor will assume the value defined in the Combination Factors dialog box

Saves the combinations with the current parameter values, closes the Combinations dialog box.

16.2 Structure Analysis Analysis / Calculations

Starts the calculations for the defined structure. Once the calculations are completed, the message Results (FEM): available should be displayed at the top of the screen.

16.3 Analysis of Results in the Graphical Form

Results/Results

Selects the Results layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Click the icon in the bottom left corner of the screen

Restores the default attributes of the structure view.

Switch to the Diagrams dialog box and turn on the Deformation option on the Deformation tab, Apply

Displays deformation of the structure.

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Position the cursor in the Cases list box (the upper toolbar) and change the load cases by means of the keyboard cursors (up and down arrows) and watch the results in the View window. If necessary, re-scale the drawing by means of the Normalize button. Switch off the Deformation option on the Deformation tab, Apply

Stops the display of structure displacements.

In the View viewer: select the right span. Switch on the Labels option in the Diagram Description field of the Parameters tab. Then, click the Open a New Window option at the bottom of the dialog box. Switch on display of MY moments on the NTM tab, Apply

Displays the MY diagram in a new window.

Exit

Closes the recently opened window with the MY moment displayed.

16.4 Analysis of Results in the Table Form Results / Displacements

Opens the table of displacements

While in the Displacements table, select the Filters option from the context menu (RMC).

Opens the Filtering: Displacements dialog box.

Select the Case option located in the list below the All button

Applies the filtering according to load cases.

Highlight 6: snow in the dialog box with load cases, confirm the selection by pressing the button with

Enters the case number into the edit field located above the black arrows.

two black arrows Highlight the 3:purlins case and add it to the selection by clicking on the button with a black arrow and a green plus sign button

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Adds the case number into the edit field, closes the Filtering: Displacements dialog box.

. Click the Close

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Select the Table Columns option from the context menu.

Opens the Nodal Value Selection dialog box.

Switch on the display of RY rotations on the Displacements tab Go to the General tab and click Coordinates in the Element Data Selection field, OK

Displays chosen values in the Displacements table, closes the Nodal Value Selection dialog box.

16.5 Detailed Analysis of Bars

Results/Detailed Analysis

Selects the Detailed Analysis layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Indicate the right span in the View window. Activate the Open a new window option at the bottom of the Detailed Analysis dialog box, Apply

Opens the Detailed Analysis viewer divided into two parts: the top one contains results in the graphical form, while the bottom one displays the results in the form of a table.

Click the maximum - S max option on the Stresses tab. Activate the display of horizontal descriptions in the Parameters tab (click Labels in the Diagram Description field), Apply

Displays the selected quantities (normal stresses) with horizontal descriptions.

Go to the Division Points tab. Click the N points along bar length option and type 10 in the field beside, Apply

Displays results (S max stress values) in the table for 10 points evenly distributed over the bar length.

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Switch on the characteristic points option on the same tab, Refresh, Apply

Enters into the dialog box the coordinates of the points for which the maximum and minimum values of S max are obtained (MIN S max x = ... (ft) and MAX S max x = ... (ft), as well as the beginning and end points of the bar (origin and end) Once the Apply button is pressed, the results for the four characteristic points will be introduced into the results window

It is also possible to display the results for the user-defined points. To do so click the relative option on the Division points tab. Enter x = 0.4 in the edit field, Add

Adds the user x = 0.4 row in the dialog box.

By analogy, enter the points with the following coordinates: x = 0.5 and x = 0.6. Select case 3:purlins in the Case Selection list, Refresh, Apply

Adds the user-defined rows into the dialog box (see below). In the bottom part of the viewer there appear the userdefined points with stress values displayed.

16.6 Dimension Lines LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Model / Start

Selects the initial layout of the Robot Millennium program.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

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Activate the following options: On the Structure tab: Structure, Node numbers, Support - symbols, On the Sections tab: Section shape Apply, OK

Displays the required quantities, closes the Display dialog box.

Tools / Dimension Lines

Opens the Dimension Lines dialog box. Selects the type of a dimension line, which will be defined as perpendicular to a segment.

Go to the Beginning field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the bottom column nodes located on the A and B structural axes determining the origin and end of the dimension line. Switch to the Distance field and enter {-2}, Apply

Indicates beginning as well as end points and distance between the construction and the first dimension line (see below). Applies the first dimension line.

Enter the characteristic dimensions of the structure as shown below, close the Dimension Lines dialog box

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16.7 Code Parameters for Steel Design Geometry / Code Parameters / Steel/Aluminum Member Type

Opens the Member Type dialog box

Opens the Member Definition - Parameters dialog box (see below)

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Type Beam 1 in the Member Type field, switch on the Coefficient option in the Buckling (Y-axis) Member

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Opens the Buckling Diagrams dialog box.

Length ly field, then click the icon Click the first icon from the left in the first row, OK

Selects the coefficient (1.0) for the Y direction, closes the Buckling Diagrams dialog box.

Perform the same operation for the Z direction Service

Opens the Serviceability - Displacement Values dialog box presented below.

Switch on the options referring to the Member deflection options in the Limit Displacements field, OK

Determines the additional code-determined parameters defining the values of limit displacements, closes the Serviceability - Displacement Values dialog box.

Save, Close

Saves the above settings, closes the dialog box. In the Member Type dialog box, there will appear a new type of element: "Beam1".

Switch to the graphic viewer, select the right beam and press the Apply and Close buttons

Applies the recently defined member type to the chosen beam, closes the Member Type dialog box.

16.8 Steel Member Verification and Design LMC on the box for selection of the Robot Millennium program layouts Structure Design/Steel/Aluminum Design

Selects the layout of the Robot Millennium program, which is used for steel (aluminum) design.

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Switch on the Member Verification option in the Calculations dialog box and click the List relevant to a given option

Opens the Member Selection dialog box.

Click the All and Close buttons

Selects all the bars, closes the opened dialog box.

Perform the same operation for the load case selection Select the Ultimate option in the Limit State field

Analysis will be carried out for ULS (internal forces).

Configuration

Opens the Configuration dialog box (see the figure below).

Define the following calculation parameters: Points Number set as 3, Efficiency Ratio set as 1, Maximum Slenderness set as 210. Leave the default values of all the parameters, OK

Applies the chosen parameters, closes the Configuration dialog box.

Click the Calculations button

Starts calculations. The program will verify automatically the selected sections and once the calculations are finished, there appears the dialog box presenting the verified members (see below).

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Click the Calc. Note button

Opens the Printout dialog box.

Select the Table printout option, OK

Opens the editor with the detailed data displayed.

Press the Save button.. In the opened Save As dialog box place the cursor in the File name field and enter the file name: calculation_note_1.rtf, Save, Close, Close

Saves the calculation note, closes the Save As dialog box, closes the print preview and theMember Verification dialog box.

16.9 Group Definition, Verification and Optimization Go to the Groups tab in the Definitions dialog box and click the New button. In the Name field enter Columns, place the cursor in the Member list field, switch to the graphic viewer and select all the columns, Save

Defines the first group (Columns) consisting of all columns Note: in order to minimize the time consumption during calculations the user should click the Sections button which opens the Section Selection dialog box and select:

Click the New button and enter Beam in the Name field. In the Member List field enter the beam number (i.e. 5), Save

Defines the second group (Beam). Note: if the family sections for beam are the same there is no need to repeat the whole operation presented above. Click the Sections button and activate the AISC database. All sections previously selected are present in the Selected sections field.

-

the AISC database in the Databases field,

one by one - the sections HP, M, S and W in the Section Families field Chosen sections are placed in the Selected Sections field; thus, they will be recognized during the process of verification. Close the dialog box by clicking OK.

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Click the New button and type Upper chord in the Name field. Switch to the graphic viewer and select all the upper chord members, Save

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Defines the third group (Upper chord). Note: in order to minimize the time consumption during calculations the user should click the Sections button which opens the Section Selection dialog box and select:

-

the AISC database in the Databases field, section P in the Section Families field

deselect the remaining section families HP, M, S and W Close the dialog box by clicking OK. Click the New button. Type Lower chord in the Name field. Switch to the graphic viewer and select all the lower chord members, Save

Defines the fourth group (Lower chord). Note: if the family sections for the lower chord are the same as for the upper chord proceed similarly as in the case of Columns and Beam groups.

Click the New button. Type Posts in the Name field. Switch to the graphic viewer and select all posts in the truss, Save

Defines the fifth group (Posts).

Click the New button. Type Bracings in the Name field. Switch to the graphic viewer and select all bracings, Save

Defines the sixth group (Bracings).

Switch to the Calculations dialog box and select the Code Group Verification option. Define numbers of groups that will be verified - in this case 1to6 and all load cases, Calculations

Carries out group verification.

Indicate the Code Group Design option in the Calculations dialog box and type group numbers (no. 1to6). Switch on the Optimization option and then press the Options button

Opens the Optimization Options dialog box.

From the available options select the Weight option, OK

If this option is switched on, it causes the section weight to be considered in optimization, i.e. the program will look for the lightest section in the group from among the sections that meet the code-defined criteria. Closes the Optimization Options dialog box.

Calculation

Runs calculations. The program will carry out the design calculations with section optimization. From a set of sections, the program selects the most optimal one with respect to weight. Clicking the Change All option results in replacing the sections applied during the design process with the optimized sections. The optimization should be carried on until sections, which are to be changed, are the same.

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16.10 Stress Analysis

Results/Stress Analysis - Bars

Selects the STRESS ANALYSIS - BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

In the Stress Analysis dialog box enter the number of a beam to which the stress analysis will apply (in the exercise 4), next set the load case as 6: snow and then press the Apply button.

Presents stress values of the chosen section in the dialog box, shows stress maps in two longitudinal and one transversal sections in the three windows located in the left part of the screen. In the Stress Analysis dialog box there appear new tabs with extreme stresses presented for selected cross sections.

Switch to the Stress Analysis viewer and select the View / 3D View option from the main menu.

There appears an additional structure bar view (see the figure below) with the additional toolbar containing options that allow the user to move, rotate or zoom the selected structure bar.

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17. Definition of an RC Slab The example presents definition of an RC slab. Calculation results are presented in the table and map form. In the example American codes and databases are applied. Data units: (ft) and (kip). The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

in the second row (Plate Design) should be selected.

17.1 Structure Definition Tools / Preferences

Opens the Preferences dialog box.

Select options as shown in the figure below

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OK

Closes the Preferences dialog box.

Tools / Job Preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.

Go to the Codes portion of the opened dialog box and select the codes as shown in the figures below

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Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.

OK

Definition of the Contour of the Lower Part of the Slab Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box. Define the settings as follows: Definition Method: Contour, In the Geometry field: enter the following point coordinates: (0.00,0.00), Add (40.00,0.00), Add (40.00,30,00), Add (20.00,30.00), Add (20.00,20.00), Add (0.00,20.00), Add, Apply, Close

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Defines the contour, closes the dialog box. Note: the points may also be introduced graphically by placing the cursor in the Geometry edit field and indicating the required points in the graphical viewer. Clicking the first of the defined points for the second time closes the contour.

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Definition of the Contour of the External, Arc-Shaped Part of the Slab Opens the Arc dialog box presented below.

Switch to the Definition Method field and select the Begin-End-Middle option

Selects the arc definition method.

In the Geometry field enter the following point coordinates: Point P1: (20.00,30.00) Point P2: (40.00,30.00) Point P3: (30.00,38.00)

Defines the consecutive arc points. Note: the points from P1 to P3 may be introduced graphically as well, by indicating the required points in the graphical viewer.

In the Parameters field enter {10} into the Sides field, Switch off the Explode option, Apply, Close

Defines the arc, closes the Arc dialog box.

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Definition of the Slab Properties Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box (see the picture below).

Enter the settings as defined below: Contour Type: switch on the Panel option, Creation With: switch on the Internal Point option

Defines new panel options.

located to the right of the Thickness field

Opens the New Thickness dialog box.

In the Th = field enter the value 15; in the Label field enter the name TH15_CONCR; in the Material field switch on the CONCR option, Add, Close

Defines the new thickness, closes the dialog box.

Move the cursor to the Reinforcement field provided in the Properties field and set the reinforcement type as Direction X.

Defines the reinforcement type.

Set the cursor in the Internal Point field. Move the mouse cursor to the graphical viewer and click once on a point located within the area of the angular slab, next, click on a point within the area of the second, smaller slab, Add, Close

Assigns the recently defined panels to the selected contours, closes the Panel dialog box.

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Definition of Openings within the Contour Geometry / Objects / Polyline contour

Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

Define the settings as follows: Definition Method: Contour, In the Geometry field enter the following: (4.00,4.00), Add (10.00,4.00), Add (10.00,8,00), Add (4.00,8.00), Add Apply, Close

Defines a rectangular opening, closes the dialog box.

Geometry / Objects / Circle

Opens the Circle dialog box.

Definition Method set as centerradius

Defines the circle definition method.

In the Geometry field enter: Point P: (30.00,14.00), Radius: (30.00,18.00)

Defines characteristic points applied during the definition process.

In the Parameters field enter: Sides: 10 Switch off the Explode option, Apply, Close

Defines a circle, closes the dialog box.

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Definition of Supports Opens the Supports dialog box. From the list of available supports select the Pinned support type, go to the Linear tab, place the cursor in the Current Selection field. Switch to the graphical viewer, point at the slab edges (including the arc) and click once on the edge.

Applies the pinned support to the structure.

Analysis / Generation

Starts generation of the calculation model.

Calculation

Model

/

17.2 Definition of Slab Loads Opens the Load Types dialog box. Place the cursor on the Nature list and select the dead load nature,New New

Defines a new load case which is automatically defined as the self-weight load and set on a first position in the Loads table. Defines a new load case (dead) with the standard name DL2.

Place the cursor on the Nature list and select the live load nature, New

Defines a new load case (live) with the standard name LL1.

New

Defines another live load case with the standard name LL2. All the defined cases are registered in the List of Defined Cases field.

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Select the second load case (DL2) in the List of Defined Cases field.

Selects the load case.

Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Go to the Surface tab and click the Uniform Planar Load icon

Open the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

Enter the load value 2 pz = - 0.10 (kip/ft ) into the new dialog box (see the picture below), Add

Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

Set the cursor in the Apply To field (in the Load Definition dialog box). Then indicate both panels (click when they are highlighted) with the mouse cursor (with the CTRL button pressed). The panel numbers become registered in the Apply To field, Apply

Applies DL2 (dead load) to the entire slab surface.

Select the LL1 live load from the list in the Load Types dialog box Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Click the Uniform Planar Load icon located on the Surface tab

Open the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

Enter the load value 2 pz = - 0.05 (kip/ft ) into the new dialog box, Add

Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

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Switch to the Apply To field and indicate the arc-shaped panel, Apply

UPDATE, November 2005

Applies LL1 (live load) to the arc-shape part of the slab.

Indicate the LL2 load case in the Load Types dialog box Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Go to the Surface tab and click the Linear Load 2p icon

Opens the Linear Load 2p dialog box shown in the picture below.

Introduce the following load parameters: Pz1 = Pz2 = - 0.70 (kip/ft), Set the cursor at the Coordinates A line and indicate two corners of the rectangular opening (located on one line), Add

Closes the Linear Load 2P dialog box.

Apply

Applies LL2 (the linear live load on the edge of the rectangular opening).

Reopen the Linear Load 2p dialog box and repeat the operation for the remaining edges of the opening Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Go to the Node tab and click the Nodal Force icon

Opens the Nodal Force dialog box as shown below.

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Enter the following parameter: Fz = - 0.65 (kip), Add

Defines the nodal force value, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Apply To field of the Load Definition dialog box, go to the graphical viewer and select with the window-shaped cursor the circular opening in the slab

Selects nodes to which nodal forces will be applied.

Apply, Close

Applies the live load concentrated in the nodes of the circular opening, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.

Close

Closes the Load Types dialog box.

17.3 Meshing Options

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Opens the Selection dialog box (shown in the picture below). It is also possible to change meshing parameters separately for individual contours.

Select the Panel option from the drop-down list provided under the All button and choose the User’s number option located on the Attrib. tab.

In the selection field the defined panel numbers are displayed.

Select panels nos. 1 2 and press the

The selected panel numbers appear in the field below the All button and the panel chosen becomes highlighted. Closes the dialog box.

button, Close Analysis / Calculation Model / Meshing Options Press the Advanced options button in the Meshing Options dialog box

Opens the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.

Indicate the Delaunay option in the Available Meshing Methods field and Automatic option in the Mesh Generation field. Type 15 in the Division1 field, OK

Applies the defined meshing settings to the selected panel (2), closes the dialog box.

Analysis / Generation

Generates the preview of the finite element mesh on the screen as shown in the picture below.

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Calculation

Model

/

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17.4 Definition of Beams Supporting the Slab Opens the Bars dialog box. Select the RC Beam option in the Bar Type field

Selects the bar type.

Select the button located to the right of the Section field

Opens the New Section dialog box shown below.

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Select RC beam in the Section Type field

Changes the New Section dialog box shape.

Enter the following values in the Basic Dimension field: b = 8 in., h = 16 in., In the Label field the program will generate automatically the name for a section defined as B R8x16, Add

Defines a concrete beam with section dimensions 8x16 and B R8x16 name.

Close

Closes the New Section dialog box, the recently defined section is available in Section field of the Bars dialog box.

Set the cursor in the Node Coordinates field and enter the following coordinates in the Beginning and End fields: (20,20) - (40,20) Add, (20,30) - (40,30) Add, (20,0) - (20,20) Add

Defines two horizontal (see the picture below).

and

one

vertical

beams

17.5 Definition of the Beam Supporting the Arc-Shaped Slab First Method Geometry / Bars Open the context menu (available by clicking the right-hand mouse button) and select: Snap Settings / Snap Settings

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Opens the Bars dialog box Opens the Snap in the drawing below.

Settings

dialog

box

presented

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Switch off the following options: - Structural axes - Grid - Advanced - Apply without confirmation Apply, Close

Defines the snap setting options which allow the user to define a beam on the slab arc by drawing it point by point. Closes the dialog box.

Switch on the Drag option and define beams supporting the arc-shaped panel point by point, Close

Defines bars, closes the dialog box.

Second Method Geometry / Objects / Arc

Opens the Arc option.

In the Definition Method field select the Begin - Middle - End option. Enter 10 into the Sides field provided in the Parameters portion and switch off the Explode option. Place the cursor in the Point P1 field of the Geometry portion, go to the graphical viewer and indicate the beginning, intermediate and end points of the defined arc.

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Apply, Close

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Confirms arc generation, closes the dialog box.

17.6 Definition of Concentrated Forces Geometry / Nodes

Opens the Nodes dialog box.

In the Coordinates field enter: (24,18) Add (36,18) Add, Close

Defines two additional nodes to which nodal forces will be applied.

Opens the Load Types dialog box. Set the live option in the Nature field, New

Defines a new load case of the Live (LL3) nature.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box. Select the Nodal Force load type in the Node tab of the dialog box. Define the force Fz = - 1,15kip, Add

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Defines the new nodal force, closes the Nodal Force dialog box.

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Set the cursor in the Apply To field and enter the numbers of the two nodes defined above, Apply, Close, Close

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Applies the recently defined loads to the selected nodes, closes the Load Definition dialog box, closes the Load Types dialog box.

17.7 Definition of Load Combinations Loads / Combinations

Opens the Combination Definition/Modification dialog box (see below).

Switch on the ULS option in the Combination Type field, OK

Opens the Combinations dialog box which allows defining combination parameters.

Transfers all the load cases to the right-hand panel. Apply, Close

Applies the defined load the Combinations dialog box.

combinations,

closes

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17.8 Structure Analysis Starts the calculation process.

17.8.1 Results in the Map Form Results / Maps

Opens the Maps dialog box, which is used to display the chosen maps of internal forces, stresses and displacements in surface elements.

From the load case list select: 1: DL1

Select the load case for which the results will be presented in the graphic form. Displays maps of the selected quantity.

In the Detailed tab select the Displacement u,w option, switch to the Scale tab and select the Basic option located in the Color palette field, Apply

On the Detailed tab in the Maps dialog box switch off the Displacements u, w option, Apply, Close

Ends map display

To make the drawing clearer select the View / Display command from the main menu

Opens the Display dialog box.

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On the Finite elements tab switch off the following options: Numbers and panels description, Panel interior and Finite elements, Apply, OK

Displays the selected elements, closes the dialog box.

Results / Panel Cuts

Opens the Panel Cuts dialog box.

On the Detailed tab select the Rotations -R yy option. Next, go to the Definition tab and select the 2 points option, enter the coordinates of the cut e.g.: (0.00, 0.00), (40.00, 20.00). Set the layer selection as middle in the Parameters tab and then set the following options available on the Diagrams tab: filled in the Filling field normal in the Diagram position field, Apply, Close

The diagram of the chosen quantity on the selected panel cut will be added to the list of available cuts and presented on the screen (see the picture bellow). Closes the dialog box.

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Selects the isometric view.

17.8.2 Results in the Table Form Results / Plate and Shell Results

Opens the FE Results dialog box.

Click the right mouse button and select Table Columns option

Opens the Result for finite elements dialog box.

In the Detailed field activate ( ) the following options: Stresses - s in direction xx, Shear Forces - Q in direction xx, Displacement u,w in direction z.

Activates quantities to be applied from the Detailed tab.

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In the Parameters field activate: Results - in Element Centers option, Layer Selection - Lower option, OK

The table with selected quantities will appear on the screen, closes the dialog box.

From the load list select the load case: Simple Cases, close the FE Results table

Selects load cases, closes the table.

17.9 Reinforcement Definition Geometry / Code Parameters / Plate and Shell Reinforcement Type

Opens the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box.

Double-click on the Direction X icon

Opens the Reinforcement Parameters ACI 318/99 dialog box, which allows adding a new reinforcement type.

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On the General tab activate the Along Y-axis command, enter the name Direction Y in the Name field. Add, Close

Defines the name of the reinforcement whose main axis will be parallel to the Y-axis of the global coordinate system.

Enter the panel numbers 1 and 2 into the Panels field, Apply, Close

Assigns the recently defined reinforcement parameters to the indicated panels, closes the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box.

17.9.1 Structure Analysis Analysis / Calculations

Starts the calculations.

17.9.2 Reinforcement Calculations Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Plate and Shell Design / Required Reinforcement

Opens the layout used for reinforcement calculations. The screen will be divided into three parts: graphic viewer, Plate and Shell Reinforcement and Reinforcements dialog boxes.

In the Method field select the equivalent mom. (Wood and Armer) option.

Selects the method based on calculation of the equivalent moment; this method is quicker that the analytical one.

Click the button located to the right of the ULS field

Opens the ULS dialog box.

Select all the cases from the list and

Selection of this option causes the selected load cases to appear on the list above the Previous button, closes the dialog box.

press the Close

button,

Opens the Selection dialog box. In the drop-down list provided under the All button select the Panel command. On the Attrib. tab select the material option, switch to the selection field and highlight the CONCR option,

Filters all concrete panels. Removes the current selection and enters numbers of the selected objects.

Close

Closes the Selection dialog box.

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Calculate

Starts calculation. Note: It may take a the calculations.

UPDATE, November 2005

few

minutes

to

complete

17.9.3 Analysis of Reinforcement Results In the Reinforcement dialog box switch on the option Y[+] located in the Area A line of Required reinforcement Activate the Maps option located in the lower portion of the Reinforcements dialog box

If this option is selected, the indicated top reinforcement area in the y direction (perpendicular to the main reinforcement direction assumed) will be presented. If this option is selected, the results obtained for the surface FE element will be presented in the form of maps.

Leave the With normalization option switched on

The maps of the selected quantity will be presented automatically in such a way so that the scale will be adjusted to the maximum and minimum values of the selected quantity

Switch on the open new window with scale displayed option, Apply

This results in display of a new window on the screen in which maps of the values selected in the Reinforcements dialog box are presented. Note: No map is displayed when reinforcement does not reach the level of the minimal reinforcement

View / Projection / Zx

Selection of the work plane

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17.9.4 Results in the Text Form Results / Reinforcement / Plate and Shell Reinforcement

Opens the Reinforcement Areas table

RMC while the table is active

Opens the context menu.

Select the Table columns

Opens the Reinforcement Areas dialog box.

On the Results tab activate: in the Results field - in Elements Centers option, In the Minimum reinforcement field switch on the Y[+] option located in the Spacing e line,

If these options are selected, then in the table the reinforcement area will be set at the centers of gravity of planar FE and the top reinforcement spacing in the y direction will be displayed.

On the FE Data tab switch on the Section option

Selecting this option results in adding - to the table - the column in which the section (thickness type) of planar FE will be selected.

OK

Closes the Reinforcement Areas, displays reinforcement results in the table.

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18. 2D Structure (Mixed RC and Steel Structure) The example presents a definition of a 2D frame which will be changed to the shell type structure. Stress analysis as well as RC beam and column analysis were performed. Data units: (ft) and (kip). The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program. The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of

the manual) will be displayed on the screen and the icon

should be selected.

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18.1 Structure Geometry PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.

On the X tab place the cursor in the Position field: {-4}, Insert {0}, Insert {20}, Insert {40}, Insert {44}, Insert, Set Numbering as A, B, C…

Introduces axis position into Set of Created Axes.

Switch to the Z tab and introduce in the Position field: {0}, Insert {12}, Insert {21}, Insert {25}, Insert {28}, Insert Set Numbering as 1, 2, 3… Apply, Close

Defines structural axis, closes the Structural Axis dialog box.

18.1.1 Section Definition Opens the Sections dialog box. Check presence of the following sections: - C R12x12, - B R12x24, - W 8X28, - W 10X45 If the above sections are not present in the list of available sections press the New section definition

Opens the New Section dialog box.

icon

On the Standard tab set the section type as RC Column

Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.

Set 12 in the b and h field, switch to the Label field and introduce column name: C R12x12, Add

Defines the C R12x12 section, which appears in the List of Active sections.

Go to the Section type field and select the RC Beam option

Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.

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Introduce 12 in the b field and 24 in the h field, switch to the Label field and enter column name: B R12x24, Add

Defines the B R12x24 section, which appears in the List of Active sections.

Go to the Section type field and select the steel option

Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.

Set AISC in the Database field, W in the Family field and W 8X28 in the Section field, Add

Defines the W 8x28 section, which appears in the List of Active sections.

As before set AISC in the Database field, W in the Family field and W 10X45 in the Section field, Add, Close, Close

Defines the W 10x45 section, which appears in the List of Active sections, closes the New Section and Sections dialog boxes.

18.1.2 Bar Definition

Structure Model/Bars

Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Go to the Bars dialog box and set: RC Column (Bar Type field), C R12x12 (Section field). Place the cursor in the Node Coordinates / Beginning field switch to the graphic viewer and select graphically the beginning and end of the column by means of the coordinates of the intersection point of defined axes: B1-B2, C1-C2, D1-D2

Defines reinforced columns.

Set following options for bars: RC Beam (Bar Type field), B R12x24 (Section field). Go to the Node Coordinates / Beginning field and as before indicate the beginning and end of the beams: A2-B2, B2-C2, C2-D2, D2-E2

Defines reinforced beams. Note: if one wants to transfer a RC beam to the design module, the beam should be defined as a sequence of separate elements. If it is defined as a super-element, it will not be transferred correctly to the design module.

Set following options: Column (Bar Type field), W 8x28 (Section field). Go to the Node Coordinates / Beginning field and as before indicate the beginning and end of the beams: A2-A3, C2-C5, E2-E3

Defines steel column.

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Set following options: Beam (Bar Type field), W 10x45 (Section field). Go to the Node Coordinates / Beginning field and as before indicate the beginning and end of the beams: A3-C5, E3-C4

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Defines steel beams.

18.1.3 Support Definition

Structure Model/Supports

Selects the SUPPORTS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Switch to the Supports dialog box. Highlight Fixed in the list of supports Set the cursor in the Current Selection field.

Select support type.

Go to the graphical viewer View, select the following nodes: 1, 3, and 5 (bottom nodes of columns located on the axis 1), Apply

Applies supports to the three selected nodes. Note: One may also type the relevant supports numbers into the Current Selection field.

18.1.4 Load Definition

Structure Model/Loads

Selects the LOADS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Go to the Load Types dialog box, set Dead in the Nature field, New

Defines the first load case DL1, which appears in the List of Defined Cases field.

Go to the Loads table

Robot Millennium generates automatically the loads originating from the self-weight of the structure and this is the first load case defined as DL1 (as self-weight in the table).

Set Dead in the Nature field, New

Defines the second load case nature (DL2).

Set the cursor in the second row of the Loads table in the Case column and select DL2 in the unfolded list box

Selects load case (DL2).

Choose the uniform load option in the Load Type column. Set the cursor in the List column and then, in the View column indicate bars No. 4to7 (with the CTRL button pressed), and introduce the load value: Pz = - 0.70 (kip/ft)

Applies uniform load to selected bars. Note: if the bar numbers are not displayed on the structure view one should chose the View / Display command from the main menu and check out the Bar Numbers option in the Structure tab, and then, press the OK button. This will result in displaying bar numbers on the structure view.

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Set Live in the Nature field, New

Defines the third load case nature (LL1).

Set the cursor in the next record of the Loads table (Cases column), select LL1 in the unfolded list box

Selects load case (LL1).

Choose the uniform load option in the Load Type column, set the cursor in the List column and then, in the View column, indicate bars No. 4 and 5, and introduce the load value Pz = -0.50 (kip/ft)

Applies load to selected bars.

Set Live in the Nature field, New

Defines the forth load case nature (LL1).

Set the cursor in the next record of the Loads table (Cases column), select LL2 in the unfolded list box

Selects load case (LL2).

Choose the uniform load option in the Load Type column, set the cursor in the List column and then, in the View column, indicate bars No. 6 and 7 enter the load value Pz = - 0.70 (kip/ft)

Applies load to selected bars.

Structure Model/Start

Selects the START layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts

18.1.5 Definition of Snow/Wind Loads American code: ANSI/ASCE 7-98 Loads / Special loads / Wind and Snow 2D/3D

Opens the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box

Press the Auto button

Automatic generation of the structure envelope for generation of snow/wind loads (in the Envelope field the program enters the following node numbers: 1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 11, 8, 6, 5)

Define the following parameters: Total depth = (40) Bay spacing = (20) active options: Wind Snow inactive options: Without parapets With base not on ground Isolated roofs

Defines basic parameters of snow/wind loads

Press the Parameters button

Opens the additional dialog box (Snow / Wind Loads), where detailed parameters may be defined

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Define parameters of the snow/wind load: the Global parameters tab: Exposure category: B Building category: II

Defines parameters of snow/wind loads

the Wind tab: Basic wind speed V: 100 (mph) Gust effect factor G change to manual and set the value: 0.83

Defines parameters of snow/wind loads

the Snow tab: Ground snow load Pg: 10 (lb/ft2) Change exposure category to: Partially exposed

Defines parameters for snow/wind loads

Generate

Pressing the button starts generation of snow and wind loads with the accepted parameters.

In the Structure frame selection viewer containing projection of structure frames - select the middle frame by LMC in the view. The frame will be highlighted in red. Accept the selection by pressing the OK button.

The Structure frame selection viewer allows selection of frames for which wind and snow loads will be generated. Considering that individual transverse frames are positioned in different zones and the load applied to them may vary, the general number of load cases may be great, therefore, the user is able to choose frames.

Close editor showing the calculation note

The calculation note appears on the screen. It presents the parameters of snow/wind load cases

Close the Snow and Wind 2D/3D dialog box

18.1.6 RC Beam Design Indicate the beam - bars 4 to 7 with the CTRL button pressed

Selects the beams, which will be design.

Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Beam Design

Opens the Load Selection dialog box.

Select the Simple cases option, OK

Displays the BEAM - DEFINITION layout from the list of available layouts.

Being in the Beam-Elevation viewer choose Analysis / Story Parameters

Opens the Story Parameters dialog box see the picture below.

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Set the following parameters: Reference level: 12 (ft), Sustained load action 5 (months), OK

UPDATE, November 2005

Defines story parameters, closes the dialog box. for:

Analysis / Calculation Options

Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.

Set the following parameters on the General tab: Deflection < {2}, Cover to: Transversal Reinforcem., Advanced

Defines general calculation options, opens the Advanced Options dialog box.

Set the following parameters: Number of calculation points in the span: {11}, OK Leave the default settings of the remaining parameters.

Defines the number of calculation, closes the Advanced Options dialog box.

Save As

Opens the Enter the name dialog box.

Type a name of the settings in the appearing dialog box, e.g. Standard_1, OK, OK

Defines the name for the user-defined calculation option set, closes the Enter the name and Calculations options dialog boxes.

Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern

Opens the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.

Switch to the General tab and select: Reinforcement Segment: Whole Beam

Selects the reinforcement generation method.

Go to the Bottom Reinf. tab and choose: Layers/Number/Nmax set {4}, Anchorage Pts

Defines maximal number of reinforcement layers, opens the Span Reinforcement Anchorages dialog box.

Set the parameter Crossed in the all support type, OK

Defines the way in which span reinforcement reaching supports. Closes the dialog box.

Go to the Top Reinf. tab and choose: Layers/Number/Nmax set {4}

Defines maximal number of reinforcement layers.

Switch to the Transversal Reinf. tab and in the Section field highlight the icons as shown below

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On the Struct. Reinf. the default parameters

-

leave

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Defines the structural reinforcement shape.

Go to the Shapes tab and in the Hooks field set: l >= {0.05}, Save As

Defines hooks length. Opens the Enter the name dialog box.

Enter the name Standard_2, OK OK

Saves parameters under a proper name, closes the dialog box. Closes the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.

Analysis / Calculations

Opens the Calculation Option Set.

Set the formerly saved settings Standard_2 and Standard_1 in the Set of Options field. Set the Reinforcement Layout option Leave the default values for the remaining parameters, Calculations

Starts the calculations.

Structure Model/RC Beams/Beamresults

Selects the BEAM-RESULTS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Analyze the results

Results / Calculation Note

Opens the Calculation Note dialog box.

Leave all parameters default, OK

Displays on the screen calculation note.

Results / Drawings

Open the Plotting viewer with drawings displayed on.

To change beam drawings one should use the buttons located in the top right corner of the screen. File / Save As Set

the

Drawings

the Component Type click

Opens the Project Component Save dialog box. option

in

icon

Go to the Project Structure field and name the beam drawing, e.g. Draw_1, OK

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Creates the drawing of the generated beam.

Defines the drawing name.

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18.1.7 RC Column Design Selects the START layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Structure Model/Start Select the central RC column and choose the Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Column Design command

Open the Load Selection dialog box.

Select Simple cases option and switch on the Automatically run calculations option, OK

Opens the RC column design module.

Structure Model / RC Columns / Column - definition

Selects the COLUMN - DEFINITION layout.

Analysis / Story Parameters

Opens the Story Parameters dialog box.

Define following parameters: Reference level: {12}, Sustained load action for: {5}, OK

Defines story parameters.

Analysis / Calculation Options. On the General tab select options: Slenderness taken into account Concrete tab - leave the default parameters

Opens the Calculation Options dialog box.

Switch to the Longitudinal Reinf. tab and from bar list select bars: # = 3÷10

Selects preferred reinforcement bars.

Transversal unchanged, Save As

Opens the Enter the name dialog box.

Reinf.

-

leave

it

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Type a name of the settings in the appearing dialog box, e.g. Standard_3, OK, OK

Defines settings name, closes the dialog box.

Analysis / Reinforcement Pattern

Open the Reinforcement Pattern dialog box.

Switch to the Longitudinal Bars. tab and set preferred bars diameters as: #4

Chooses preferred bar diameter. Note: to reduce the time of calculations, one should select a preferred diameter, e.g. #4)

Transversal Bars tab - leave the default parameters Go to the Dowel Bars tab and activate the Main Bars option in the Connection to the Upper Column field

Defines connection type.

Go to the Shapes tab and select hook length {0.05}, leave the default values of the remaining parameters, Save As

Chooses hooks length. Opens the Enter the name dialog box.

Type a name of the settings in the appearing dialog box, e.g. Standard_4, OK, OK

Defines settings name, closes the dialog box.

Structure / Buckling Length

Opens the Buckling Length dialog box.

Click the field.

icon in the Direction Y

If the Non-sway option is active, there will appear the NonSway Structure dialog box. Defines buckling length coefficient, closes the dialog box.

Select the icon with the 0.80 coefficient (first one in the second row), OK Opens the Non-Sway Structure dialog box. Click the field

icon in the Direction Z

Defines buckling length coefficient, closes the dialog box. Select the icon with the 0.80 coefficient (first one in the second row), OK Apply, Close

Closes the Buckling Length dialog box.

Analysis / Calculations

Opens the Calculation Option Set dialog box.

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Set the previously defined settings (i.e. Standard_4 and Standard_3) in the Set of Options field. Leave the default values for the remaining parameters, Calculations

Starts calculations.

Results / Governing Case

Opens the Intersections dialog box, which presents a list of load combinations recognized during the process of designing the column.

Analyze the parameters of section efficiency ratio Structure Model / RC Columns / Column - results

Opens the COLUMN - RESULTS layout (see the picture below). The window presents curves of N-M interaction for the given load combination.

Results / Calculation Note

Opens the Calculation Note dialog box.

OK

Generates a document containing all the data concerning column calculations, closes the Calculation Note dialog box.

Analyze the generated document Results / Drawing

Open the Plotting viewer with drawings displayed on.

Use the buttons to see the other drawings of the column File / Save As

Opens the Project Component Save dialog box.

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Set the Drawings option in the Component Type click

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Creates the drawing of the generated column.

icon

Go to the Project Structure field and name the beam drawing, e.g. Draw_2 OK

Defines the drawing name.

18.1.8 Change of the Structure Geometry and Type

Structure Model/Start Geometry / Structure Type

Select the Shell Design (the third one from the left in the second row)

Selects the START layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Opens the window presented on the drawing below.

Changes structure type to shell.

Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.

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On the Y tab place the cursor in the Numbering selection list and select the Define option, set the axis name for Level 1. Introduce the following values to the Position field: {0}, Insert {20}, Insert {40}, Insert, Apply, Close

Introduces axis position into Set of Created Axes, closes the Structural Axis dialog box.

Ctrl + A

Selects all bars which will be highlighted into the red color.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box (see below).

In the dX, dY, dZ edit field type the translation vector: (0, 20, 0)

Define the translation vector. Note: One may define translation vector graphically by clicking on the beginning and end of the translation vector. Copies selected elements.

Enter the value 2 in the Number of repetitions field. Leave the default values for the remaining parameters, Execute, Close View / Projection / 3d xyz

Displays a 3d view of the structure (see the picture below).

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Structure Model/Bars

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Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

If the W 8X15 section is not present in the available section list, one located should press the button to the right side of the Section field

Opens the New Section dialog box.

On the Standard tab set the section type as Steel

Changes the appearance of the New Section dialog box.

Set AISC in the Database field, W in the Family field and W 8X15 in the Section field, Add, Close

Defines the W 8x15 section, which appears in the List of Active sections.

To define bar element sets: Beam in the Bar Type field, W 8x15 in the Section field. Then move the cursor to the graphic viewer, click with the left mouse key on the point depicting the beginning and end point of the bar element. These points may be define as the coordinates of the intersection points of following structure axis: (E, Level 1, 3) and (E, Level 2, 3), (E, Level 2, 3) and (E, Level 3, 3), (C, Level 1, 5) and (C, Level 2, 5), (C, Level 2, 5) and (C, Level 3, 5), (A, Level 1, 3) and (A, Level 2, 3), (A, Level 2, 3) and (A, Level 3, 3)

Defines beams connecting frame corners.

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18.1.9 Slab Definition View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box (see the picture below).

Move the cursor to the graphic viewer and select the left end point of the concrete beam

The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change automatically to the selected one e.g. (-4.00,0.00,12.00).

In the Fixed field switch on the Z option, Apply

Defines new work plane, closes the dialog box.

View / Projection / Xy

Once the option is selected the structure is set on the XY plane at the recently defined Z coordinate (e.g. Z = 12); only structure components from this plane are displayed.

Geometry contour

/

Objects

/

Polyline-

Opens the Polyline-Contour dialog box.

In the Definition Method edit field Defines the contour, closes the dialog box. select the Contour option. Place the Note: Closing the contour is effectuated by clicking the first of the defined points for the second time. cursor in the Geometry field indicate the required points of the contour in the graphic viewer (the contour may be also defined by typing appropriate coordinates in the Geometry field). A, Level 1 Add, E, Level 1 Add, E, Level 3 Add, A, Level 3 Add, A, Level 1 Add Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box.

Define settings as defined below: Contour Type: Panel option, Creation With: Internal Point option, Reinforcement type: Direction X Thickness: TH12_CON.

Defines panel properties.

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Place the cursor in the Internal Point field. Switch to the graphical viewer and indicate once a point within the boundaries of the rectangular slab, Close

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Applies chosen panel properties to the selected contour in the construction, closes the dialog box shown on the picture below.

18.1.10 Offset Definition View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Switch on following options: Finite Elements tab: Thickness option, Sections tab: Section - shape option Apply, OK

On the structure drawing, which appears on the screen one can see that axis of the RC beams and RC slab are on the same level. Robot Millennium allows one for defining of offsets within the structure.

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Geometry / Additional Attributes / Offsets

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Opens the Offsets dialog box.

Opens the dialog box for defining new offset will be open (see the picture below).

In the Label field enter the name Offset_1 for new offset. Then in the UZ field introduce the offset value (in the exercise the offset value is equal -18 in as it is half of RC slab height plus half of RC beams height) at the beginning and at the end of the bar in the Z-axis direction. In the Coordinate System field activate the Global option, Add, Close

Applies recently defined offset in the active list of offsets, closes the dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Current Selection field and type the numbers of bars (e.g. all concrete beams), to which offsets will be attributed Finish the operation by pressing Apply, Close

Applies offset to the selected elements, closes the dialog box. Result of this operation presents picture below.

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18.1.11 Front Wall Definition View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box (see the picture below).

Move the cursor to the graphic viewer and select the left end point of the concrete beam

The coordinates in the Work Plane dialog box will change automatically to the selected one e.g. (40.00,0.00,0.00).

In the Fixed field switch on the X option, Apply

Defines new work plane, closes the dialog box.

View / Projection / Yz

Once this option is selected the structure is set on the YZ plane at the recently defined X - coordinate value (e.g. Z = 40) and only structure components from this plane will be displayed.

Geometry contour

/

Objects

/

Polyline-

In the Definition Method edit field select the Contour option. Place the cursor in the Geometry field and introduce coordinates of the points defining the appropriate contour: 1 (40.0, 0.0, 0.0) 2 (40.0, 6.0, 0.0) 3 (40.0, 6.0, 8.0) 4 (40.0, 12.0, 8.0) 5 (40.0, 12.0, 0.0) 6 (40.0, 28.0, 0.0) 7 (40.0, 28.0, 8.0) 8 (40.0, 34.0, 8.0) 9 (40.0, 34.0, 0.0) 10 (40.0, 40.0, 0.0) 11 (40.0, 40.0, 12.0) 12 (40.0, 0.0, 12.0), Apply, Close

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Opens the Polyline-Contour dialog box

Defines the contour see the picture below, closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

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Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box.

Click the button located to the right of the Thickness field

Opens the New Thickness dialog box.

In the Th field type 25, which is a new value for panel thickness. Then in the Label field enter new name TH25_CONCR, Add, Close

Confirm new thickness settings, closes the New Thickness dialog box.

Set the folowing parameters: Reinforcement type: Dir_Z Thickness: TH25_CONCR in the Panel dialog box and then, set the cursor in the Internal Point field. Move the cursor to the graphical viewer and indicate once the point within the boundaries of the recently defined contour.

Applies chosen panel properties to the selected contour in the structure. If the Dir_Z reinforcement type is not available in the reinforcement type list, press the button located to the right of the Reinforcement list

On the General tab define settings as presented on the picture below, Add, Close

Defines new reinforcement parameters, closes the dialog box shown on the picture below.

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18.1.12 Definition of Supports on Wall Edges Geometry / Supports

Opens the Supports dialog box.

From the list of active supports check out the fixed support type (recently selected support type will be highlighted). Then in the Current Selection field activate the Line option. Set the cursor in the graphic viewer and click at the appropriate edge when it is highlighted

Applies supports on the wall.

18.1.13 Definition of Additional Loads to Be Applied to the Slab Loads / Load Types

Opens the Load Types dialog box.

Select the live nature in the Nature field, New

It results in appearance a new load case (LL3) in the list of defined cases.

Select the recently define load case from the available load list. Press the

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

icon On the Surface tab click the Uniform

Opens the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

Planar Load icon and set the parameter as presented on the picture below

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Confirm the settings pressing the Add button

Closes the Uniform Planar Load dialog box.

In the Apply To field enter the number defining the slab to which the load will be applied, Apply, Close

Applies planar load to structure elements, closes the Load Definition dialog box.

18.1.14 Definition of Combinations Loads / Combinations

Opens the Combination Definition / Modification dialog box.

Leave all parameters default and press the OK button

Opens the Combinations dialog box.

Select the DL1 load case from the

Defines load cases for the combination.

Case List, press the button Repeat the above operations for the live load cases and one of the wind cases. Closes the dialog box.

Apply, Close

18.1.15 Definition of Meshing Options Tools / Job Preferences / Meshing Options / Modification

Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.

In the Mesh Generation field - with the Delaunay method switched on in the Available Meshing Methods field - activate Automatic option and enter 10 in the Division 1 field. Other parameters leave as default, OK

Defines meshing options, closes the dialog box.

OK

Closes the Job Preferences dialog box.

Analysis / Generation

Calculation

Model

/

To change meshing parameters for one panel (e.g. vertical) chose vertical panel and then select from the menu: Analysis / Calculation Model / Meshing Options

If this option is selected, Robot Millennium generates the calculation model of a structure (finite elements Note: meshing parameters have been change in the same way in both panels. Opens the Meshing Options dialog box.

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In the Available Meshing Methods select the Delaunay method, switch to the Mesh Generation field and select the Automatic option. In the Division 1 field enter 15, OK

Defines meshing parameters for vertical panel, closes the Meshing Options dialog box.

Analysis / Calculation Model / Local Mesh Generation

Generates the calculation model.

18.2 Structure Analysis Starts the calculations.

18.3 Analysis of Results Results / Maps

Opens the Maps dialog box.

Activate the open new window with scale displayed option located in the lower portion of the dialog box. Select from the list of loads LL3 load case and on the Detailed tab chose the Displacement - u, w in the direction z option, Apply

Displays the viewer presented on the picture below.

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Results / Diagrams for bars

Opens the Diagrams dialog box.

In the NTM tab turn on the FZ Force option, Apply

The diagram of selected force appears in the graphic viewer if not, press the Normalize button. Pressing this button results in presenting diagrams of a selected quantity in such a way that the scale will be adjusted to the maximum and minimum value of the indicated quantity.

Switch off the FZ Force option and go to the Deformation tab. Activate the Deformation command then set in motion the Open a new window option located in the lower part of the dialog box

If this options are selected the structure deformed under loads will be displayed in a new window on the screen as shown below.

Results / Plate and Shell Results

Opens the FE Results table.

Select from the load cases list DL1 load case and then open the context menu by clicking the right mouse button. Select the Table columns option

Opens the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.

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In the Detailed tab switch on options: Membrane Forces - N in the direction xx, Shear Forces - Q in the direction yy, Displacements u,w in direction z On the Parameters tab select following options: panel/node in the Results field upper in the Layer Selection field, OK

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Selecting these options results in adding to the table, another columns representing membrane forces, shear forces and displacements at the structure nodes for the upper FE layer. Closes the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.

18.4 Stress Analysis for All Structure Bars Results / Stress Analysis / Stress Analysis - Structure

The screen displays a window presenting the structure view, result table in the lower part and the dialog box Stress Analysis - Structure governing stress analysis.

Select the 1: DL1 load case from the set of available load cases

Selects load case for stress analysis.

In the Diagrams tab chose the Mises Max option, switch to the parameters tab and select the Filled option located in the Filling field, Apply

The Robot Millennium performs calculations and presents the stress values on the structure bars, whereas the tabular result window (table) displays the values of the appropriate stresses (see the picture below).

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Go to the Maps - Deformation tab in the Stress Analysis - Structure dialog box and switch on the Deformation option

If this option is switched on, then after generating a 3D view presenting stress maps for structure bars, stress maps will be presented on a deformed structure.

Being in the Structure Analysis structure results table select from the menu - which changes its shape View / Dynamic View 3D command

Selecting this command allows presenting a structure together with section shapes and accurate detailed stress maps on these sections (the example of the structure with the presented stresses is shown in the figure below).

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19. 3D Steel Structure (Modal and Time History Analyses) The example presents the definition of a 3D steel structure (simple workshop) as presented in the figure below. Definitions and combinations of loads as well as modal and time history analyses are included in the example. Data units: (ft) and (kip). Combinations will be generated according to LRFD.

The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on the screen and the icon

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in the first row (Frame 3D Design) should be selected.

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19.1 Structure Geometry PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

Geometry / Axis Definition

Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.

On the X tab set numbering as A, B, C, place the cursor in the Position field and enter the following numbers: {-22} Insert, {-18} Insert, {0} Insert, {18} Insert, {22} Insert

Defines X coordinates of the vertical axes (in the YZ plane).

On the Y tab set numbering as A, B, C, place the cursor in the Position field and enter the following numbers: {0} Insert, {20} Insert, {40} Insert, {60} Insert, {80} Insert

Defines Y coordinates of the horizontal axes (in the XZ plane).

On the Z tab set numbering as 1, 2, 3, place the cursor in the Position field and enter the following numbers: {0} Insert, {12} Insert, {18} Insert, {22} Insert, Apply, Close

Defines Z coordinates of the horizontal axes (in the XY plane). Generates the structural axes, closes the Structural Axis dialog box.

View / Projection / ZX

Displays ZX plane of the structure.

Structure Model/Bars Select the following options in the Bars dialog box: Bar Type: Column Section: W 8X28

Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Selects bar properties. Note: If the Section list box does not contain the W 8X28 section, the user should click the button to open the New Section dialog box. In the Standard tab, the user should select: − Database: AISC − Family: W − Section: W 8X28, Add, Close

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Go to the graphical viewer (View) and define the following bars using the structural axes - A1 - A3 - E1 - E3

Defines the columns.

Switch to the Bars dialog box and select: Bar Type: Beam Section: W 10X45

Selects bar properties. Note: if the Section list box does not contain the W 10X45 section, the user should repeat the operation as in the case of the W 8x28 section.

Go to the graphical viewer and define spandrel beams - A3 - C4 - E3 - C4

Defines the spandrel beams.

Edit / Divide

Opens the he Division dialog box.

In the Division field indicate the - into n parts option, and type 3 in the Number of Segments field. Activate the Generate nodes without bar/edge division option. Go to the graphical viewer and perform the operation of division by clicking on the formerly created spandrel beams, Close

Divides the spandrel beam into 3 parts. Closes the Division dialog box.

Switch to the Bars dialog box and select: Bar Type: Simple bar Section: W 10X45

Selects bar properties.

Switch to the graphical viewer and define bars using the structural axes - A2 - B2 - E2 - D2

Defines cantilevers.

Geometry / Additional Attributes / Brackets

Opens the Brackets dialog box.

Opens the New Bracket dialog box. Type Bracket_1 in the Name field and define the following settings: Bracket Type - Plates, Parameters: Length = 0.20 x Bar Length. Leave the default values of the remaining parameters, Add, Close

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Defines a new bracket, closes the New Bracket dialog box.

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Indicate the new bracket in the Brackets dialog box, type the spandrel beam numbers in the Bars edit field or, after clicking in the field, indicate the elements in the graphical viewer (with the CTRL button pressed), Apply, Close

Structure Model/Supports Highlight the Pinned option in the Supports dialog box. Click the mouse cursor in the Current Selection field (the cursor will start to blink). Then, type there the numbers of the bottom column nodes (node no. 1 and 3) or select them in the graphical viewer, Apply

Structure Model/Start

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Assigns the new bracket to the chosen members, closes the Bracket dialog box.

Selects the SUPORTS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Defines a support.

Selects the initial layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Edit / Select All (CTRL+A)

Selects the entire structure.

View / Work in 3D / 3Dxyz

Displays the 3D view.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

In the Translation Vector field type: 0 20 0 (or 0, 20, 0); In the Number of Repetitions field type {4}, Execute, Close

Translates structure elements, closes the dialog box.

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box.

Click the right corner of the first frame (or type the coordinates: 22, 0, 18 in the edit field) which will result in selection of the work plane, Apply, Close

Defines the work plane for structure definition/modification.

Select the View icon from the top toolbar, which opens a next

Displays YZ plane of the structure.

toolbar. Click the Projection YZ icon Opens the Bars dialog box

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Set the following parameters: Bar Type: Beam, Section: W 8X15. Connect the frame corners defining the following bars: - A3 - B3 - B3 - C3 - C3 - D3 - D3 - E3

Defines elements connecting the right frame corners.

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box.

Click the left corner of the first frame (or type the coordinates –22, 0, 18 in the edit field) which results in selecting the work plane, Apply

Defines the work plane.

By analogy, draw bars connecting left frame corners Go to 3D view by pressing the 3D Projection XYZ toolbar

Displays 3D view of the structure.

icon in the View

Go to the Work Plane dialog box and select the work plane corresponding to the frame top by clicking the top of the first frame or entering its coordinates (0, 0, 22), Apply

Defines the work plane.

Click the button in the top part of the Work Plane dialog box

Closes the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / YZ

Displays YZ plane of the structure. Note: as a result of the work plane definition, the structure view disappears.

Switch to the Bars dialog box and set the following parameters: Bar Type: Beam, Section: W 8X15. Connect the frame corners defining the following bars: - A4 - B4 - B4 - C4 - C4 - D4 - D4 - E4

Defines elements connecting tops of frame corners.

Structure Model/Bars View / Work in 3D / Local System Definition by 3 Points

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Selects the BARS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Opens the Local System Definition dialog box.

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In the Point Definition field define the following point coordinates: P1: (22, 0, 18), P2: (22, 20, 18), P3: (0, 0, 22), Apply

Defines a new coordinate system.

Switch to the Bars dialog box and set the following parameters: Bar Type: Beam, Section: W 6X9. Draw purlins connecting successive spandrel beams, Exit

Defines purlins. Closes the additional view. Tip: when drawing the purlins, the user may take advantage of the formerly defined division of spandrel beams, i.e. from the additional nodes on spandrel beams. If the nodes are not visible, the user should switch on the Node numbers option on the Structure tab in the Display dialog box (it may be activated by the View / Display command) and close the dialog box.

In the Point Definition field define the following point coordinates: P1: (-22, 0, 18), P2: (-22, 20, 18), P3: (0, 0, 22), Apply, Close

Defines a new coordinate system, closes the dialog box.

Switch to the Bars dialog box and set the following parameters: Bar Type: Beam, Section: W 6X9. Draw purlins connecting successive spandrel beams, Exit

Defines purlins. Closes the additional view.

Edit / Correct

Opens the Structure Correction dialog box (see the picture below).

In the opened dialog box switch on the following options: Entire Structure, Bar Intersections, Geometrical Center, Apply, Close

Eliminates possible errors, closes the dialog box.

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box.

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Switch to the graphic viewer and select a point belonging to the right wall of the structure, e.g. the corner (22, 0, 18), Apply

Defines the work plane for bracing definition.

Click the button in the top part of the Work Plane dialog box

Closes the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / Yz

Displays the structure view in the YZ plane.

Switch to the Bars dialog box and set the following parameters: Bar Type: Simple Bar, Section: C 4x5.4. Define the following bars: - A1 - B3 - B1 - A3 - D1 - E3 - E1 - D3

Defines bracings in the right part of the workshop.

Selects the initial layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Structure Model/Start View / Projection / 3D xyz

Displays a 3D structure view.

Select C 4x5.4 section and confirm

Selects all C 4x5.4 sections in the structure.

the operation by pressing Edit / Edit / Translate Define the following Vector: (-44, 0, 0), Execute, Close

Opens the Translation dialog box. Translation

Geometry / Releases

Create bracings for the left wall, closes the Translation dialog box.

Opens the Releases dialog box.

Highlight the Pinned - Pinned label Switch to the graphic viewer and click the

Opens the Selection dialog box.

icon

Select C 4x5.4 section and confirm the operation by pressing

Selects all C 4x5.4 sections in the structure.

.

Switch to the Current Selection field in the Releases dialog box, Apply, Close

Assigns releases to the selected members, closes the dialog box.

Geometry / Additional Attributes / Advanced Bar Properties

Opens the Advanced Properties dialog box.

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Click the Tension Bars option, Switch off the Truss bars - only axial forces act option. Enter the numbers of all the bracings into the Bar Lists edit field, Apply, Close

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Assigns advanced properties to the members chosen, closes the dialog box.

19.2 Load Definition Selects the LOADS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

Structure Model/Loads Switch to the Load Types dialog box and select the nature: Dead, New

Defines new load case (dead) with standard name DL1.

Select the nature: dead, New

Defines new load case nature (dead) with standard name DL2.

Select the Load Definition from the side toolbar

icon

Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Select the Uniform Load Define the load pz = - 0.25 (kip/ft), Add

Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To edit field and indicate, in the graphical viewer, all the spandrel beams, Apply, Close

Applies the dead load originating from the roof cladding, closes the Load Definition dialog box.

Select the nature: wind, New

Defines a new load case (wind) with the standard name WIND1.

Select the Load Definition from the side toolbar

icon

Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Select the Uniform Load Define the load px = 0.25 (kip/ft), The remaining loads, i.e. py and pz should be zeroed out, Add

Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

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Switch to the Apply To edit field and indicate columns in the left part of the structure, Apply

Applies the wind load to the left column of the structure.

Reenter the Uniform Load dialog box, enter the load pz = - 0.10 (kip/ft), select Local Coordinate System, Add

Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To edit field and indicate the spandrel beams belonging to the left part of the roof, Apply, Close

Applies the load to the spandrel beams in the left part of the structure.

By analogy create a new load type. Select nature: wind, New

Defines a new load case nature (wind) with the standard name WIND2.

Select Load Definition the right-hand toolbar

icon from

Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Select the Uniform Load Define the load px = - 0.25 (kip/ft), Global Coordinate System The remaining loads, i.e. py and pz should be assigned zero values, Add

Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To edit field and indicate columns in the right-hand part of the workshop hall, Apply

Applies the wind load to the column on the right.

Reenter the Uniform Load dialog box, enter the load pz = - 0.10 (kip/ft), select Local Coordinate System, Add

Defines the load value and direction, closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To edit field and indicate the spandrel beams of the right-hand part of the roof, Apply, Close

Applies the load to the spandrel beams of the right-hand part of the roof.

Select the nature: snow, New

Defines a new load case nature (snow) with the standard name SN1.

Select the Load Definition from the side toolbar

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icon

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

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Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.

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Opens the Uniform Load dialog box.

Select the Uniform Load Define the load pz = - 0.25 (kip/ft), set Coordinate System as Global, switch on the Projected load option, Add

Defines the value and direction of the load which will refer to the bar length projected on the plane that corresponds to the direction of force operation. Closes the Uniform Load dialog box.

Switch to the Apply To edit field and indicate, in the graphical viewer, all the spandrel beams, Apply, Close

Applies the snow load, closes the Load Definition dialog box.

Select the nature: live, New

Defines a new load case (live) with the standard name LL1.

Select the Load Definition from the side toolbar

icon

Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Bar Force dialog box.

Select the Bar Force Enter the load: FZ = - 2.50 (kip), Add

Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Apply To edit field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the left cantilever of the first frame, Apply

Selects element to which the live load will be applied, closes the Load Definition dialog box.

Then reenter the Bar Force dialog box and apply the load: FZ = - 0.50 (kip), Add

Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Apply To edit field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the right cantilever the same frame, Apply

Applies the live load (LL1) to the cantilever of the first frame.

Select the nature: live, New

Defines a new load case nature (live) and the standard name LL2.

Select the Load Definition from the side toolbar

icon

Go to the Bar tab in the dialog box.

Opens the Load Definition dialog box.

Opens the Bar Force dialog box.

Select the Bar Force

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Enter the load: FZ = - 2.50 (kip), Add

Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Apply To edit field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the left cantilever of the second frame, Apply

Selects the element to which the live load will be applied, closes the Load Definition dialog box.

Then reenter the Bar Force dialog box and apply the load: FZ = - 0.50 (kip), Add

Defines the live load, closes the Bar Force dialog box.

Place the cursor in the Apply To edit field, switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the right cantilever the same frame, Apply

Applies the live load (LL2) to the cantilever of the first frame.

Repeat the same operation for the remaining frames (LL3, LL4 and LL5).

19.3 Load Combination Definition Tools / Job Preference

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box presented in the picture below.

Select the Codes / Actions option and set LRFD in the Code Combinations list box, OK

Select code for combinations, closes the dialog box.

Loads / Code Combinations

Opens the Load Case Code Combination dialog box.

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Activate the calculations - with the options turned on as shown in the drawing below.

Go to the third tab: Groups. Select the Nature: live in the list box, highlight the LL2 case and transfer it to the right-hand panel by means of

Creates a second group of cases.

the button. Press Create a group from cases Return to the Group Cases: 1 and create the third load group out of the LL3 load. Repeat the operation until there remains only the LL1 load in the Group Cases: 1.

Creates the remaining groups of cases.

Go to the next tab: Relations. Select the Nature: live from the list box, chose the or(excl) operator. Highlight a given load case and move it to the right panel (see the picture below)

Creates five independently operating cases for all the five live loads.

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Go to the Simplified Combinations tab and select the MY and MZ moments and Reactions, switch on the Simplified Combinations option in the bottom part of the dialog box

Allows the user to generate extreme combinations with particular values considered.

Switch to the Selection. Select all bars and all nodes, Close

Allows the user to generate simplified combinations for the selected bars or nodes. Closes the Load Case Code Combination dialog box.

19.4 Structure Analysis Tools / Job preferences

Opens the Job Preferences dialog box.

Highlight the Structure Analysis option in the tree provided in the dialog box and select the DSC algorithm option, OK

Select the DSC algorithm (discontinuity) which will be used during structure calculations.

Starts the calculation.

19.5 Analysis of Results

Results/Results Indicate the FX internal force in the Diagrams dialog box, Apply

Selects the RESULTS layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts. Displays the diagram of the FX internal forces in the graphic viewer.

View the results in the structure view. By means of the Select Cases (top of the screen icon) list box, view the results for the remaining loads Screen-capture the results for the most interesting load case: when in the structure view, select the Screen Capture command from the context menu (RMC)

Opens the Screen Capture dialog box.

Define a name of the screen capture, OK

Defines the screen capture name, closes the dialog box.

Results / Forces As before, view the results for each load case separately by means of the Select Cases list box

Opens the table Forces - cases: with the results displayed.

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Select the snow load case and then, chose the Filters option from the context menu.

Opens the Filtering: Forces dialog box.

Select the section: C 4x5.4, Close

Filters the bracings, closes the dialog box.

CTRL+ALT+Q

Opens the Screen Capture Label dialog box.

Define a screen "Bracings", OK

capture

titled

Defines the screen capture named Bracings, closes the dialog box.

Close the results table

19.6 Modal Analysis Analysis / Analysis Types

Opens the Analysis Type dialog box.

Press the New button located in the lower part of the dialog box

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box

Set the name of a new case as Modal_1

The Modal Analysis Parameters dialog box, presented in the drawing below appears on the screen.

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Activate the following options: - Analysis Mode: Modal option - Method: Lanczos Algorithm - Mass Matrix: Lumped with Rotations. Parameters: - Numbers of Modes: 10 - Tolerance: 0.0001 - Number of Iterations: 40 - Damping: 0.05 - Participation Masses: Inactive OK, Close

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Confirms the settings, closes the dialog boxes.

Starts calculations.

19.6.1 Analysis of Vibration Eigenmodes From the list of loads select the load case: Modal_1. Then from the list of modes select the mode: Mode 3

Selects the load case and mode.

Results / Diagrams for Bars

Opens the Diagrams dialog box.

On the Deformation tab switch on the Deformation option. In the Diagrams Scale for 1(in) enter the number of structure deformation units for unit length e.g. 1, Apply

Presents the diagrams of the selected vibration modes calculated during structure analysis. Note: if the diagram will not appear in the graphic viewer, push the Normalize button. Pressing this button results in presenting diagrams of a selected quantity in such a way that the scale will be adjusted to the maximum and minimum value of the indicated quantity.

Switch to the Number of frames list box and enter 15, then switch to the Number of frames / second and introduce 10, Start

Prepares the animation of the selected value based on the parameters assigned and begins the animation. During the presentation, a toolbar presented on the picture below appears on the screen with options used to stop, pause, replay etc.

Results / Advanced / Modal Analysis

Opens the Dynamic Analysis Results table.

While the cursor is located within the table open the context menu by means of RMC and select the Table Columns option

Opens the Dynamic analysis value selection dialog box.

On the Eigenvectors tab activate the following options in the Components field: UX, RZ, OK

Additional columns appear in the table, closes the dialog box.

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Place the cursor within the table and press the right mouse button to open the context menu and select the Screen Capture option.

Opens the Screen Capture Label dialog box presented below.

OK

Defines screen capture.

File / Printout Composition

Opens the Printout Composition - Wizard dialog box.

Go to the Screen Capture tab, highlight the screen capture and click the All button

Adds defined screen captures to the right panel.

Displays the preview of the selected screen capture.

19.7 Time History Analysis Opens the Analysis Type dialog box. Press the New button located in the lower portion of the dialog box

Opens the New Case Definition dialog box

Set the name of a new case as Time_1, activate the Time history analysis, OK, accept with Yes the warning about the result status change

The Time History Analysis dialog box.

Click the Function definition button

Opens the Time Function Definition dialog box.

In the Function name field enter the name: Wind blast, Add

Defines the function name.

Switch to the Points tab, which appears in the dialog box and define the following points and corresponding values of the function using Add button: T = 0.0 ⇒ F(T) = 0 T = 0.1 ⇒ F(T) = 1 T = 0.2 ⇒ F(T) = 0 T = 1.0 ⇒ F(T) = 0, Close

The Time Function Definition will be shaped as indicated in the picture below. Closes the dialog box.

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Select the WIND 1 load case, Add, OK Start the calculations the Calculations button

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Closes the Time History Analysis dialog box.

clicking

Results / Advanced / Time History Analysis - Diagrams

Opens the Time History Analysis dialog box.

Press the Add button and then set all the options as shown in the picture below, Add

Opens the Diagram Definition dialog box.

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Close the dialog box. The recently defined value of displacement in the z direction will appear in the left Available diagrams panel, highlight it. Press the

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Transfers the chosen quantity to the right panel. Opens the viewer as shown in the picture below.

button, Apply

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20. Definition of an RC Container The example presents definition of a reinforced container. Load combinations containing pressure and temperature load cases have been applied here. The American code ACI 318/99 has been used for reinforcement calculations. Data units: (ft) and (kip). The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

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in the second row (Shell Design) should be selected.

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20.1 Structure Definition Structural Axis Definition PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION Opens the Structural Axis dialog box.

Set the following options: in the Position field - leave the default value (0.00), in the No. of Repet. field - set {2}, in the Distance field - type 20.0 ft, Insert

Inserts axes defined in the edit fields. The result of this operation can be seen in the picture below.

Switch to the Y tab and set: in the Position field - (0.00), in the No. of Repet. field – type {1}, in the Distance field - enter 20.0 ft, in the Numbering field – select A,B,C Insert

Inserts axes defined in the edit fields.

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Afterwards go to the Z tab set: in the Position field - (0.00), in the No. of Repet. field – type {1}, in the Distance field - enter 10.0 ft, in the Numbering field select Define option and in the field on the right type Level 1, Insert, Apply, Close

Displays the defined structure axis on the screen, closes the Structural Axis dialog box.

View / Projection / 3D xyz

Displays a 3D view of the structure (see below).

New Thickness Definition Geometry / Properties / Thickness

Opens the New Thickness dialog box. Opens the New Thickness dialog box.

On the Homogeneous tab enter: Thickness field: {10}, Material field: Concrete Label field: TH10_CONCR the defined thickness type, Add

Defines new thickness for walls.

for

On the Homogeneous tab enter: Thickness field: {12}, 3 Elastic Foundation field: 320 (kip/ft ) Material: Concrete Label field: TH12_CONCR, Add, Close

Defines new thickness for the bottom. The recently defined thickness will appear in the Active Thickness Type list.

Close

Closes the FE Thickness dialog box.

Reinforcement Definition Opens the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box. Opens the Reinforcement Parameters dialog box.

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On the General tab activate Along X-Axis option in the Main reinforcement direction field and define the name as Dir_X. In the Reinforcement calculations for shells field select the Type: bending + compression/tension option. On the SLS Parameters tab switch on the Cracking option located in the Calculation range field. Other parameters leave as default. Add, Close Once again press the icon, then on the General tab activate Along ZAxis option and enter the name: Dir_Z. In the Reinforcement calculations for shells field select the Type: bending + compression /tension option. On the SLS Parameters tab switch on the Cracking option located in the Calculation range field. Other parameters leave as default. Add, Close Close

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Defines new reinforcement parameters, closes the dialog box.

Defines new reinforcement parameters, Reinforcement Parameters dialog box.

closes

Closes the Plate\Shell Reinforcement Type dialog box.

Definition of a Contour of the Longer Side Wall View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box.

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Place the cursor at the point determined by the intersection of the following axes: 1, B, Level 1 Apply, Close

Enters the appropriate coordinates to the Work Plane dialog box (see the picture below).

View / Projection / Zx

Once this option is selected the structure is set on the ZX plane at the recently defined Y-coordinate value (in the example Y = 20). Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box with the Contour option switched on.

Press the Geometry button

Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.

Switch to the graphic viewer, indicate the following points of the contour of the longer side wall as the intersection points of the following structure axes: 1, Level 2, 2, Level 2, 2, Level 1, 1, Level 1, 1, Level 2

Defines the first contour of the longer side wall. Note: to finish contour definition the user should indicate once again the first point of the contour or type its coordinates.

Define manually the following points in the green field in the geometry portion of the dialog box: (20.0, 20.0, 10.0), Add (40.0, 20.0, 10.0), Add (40.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add (20.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add (20.0, 20.0, 10.0), Add Close

Defines the second contour of the longer side wall. Closes the Polyline - Contour dialog box.

Definition of a Panel of the Longer Side Wall View / Projection / 3D xyz

Displays a 3D view of the defined structure.

Geometry / Panels

Opens the Panel dialog box.

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In the Properties field select Dir_Z reinforcement type from the available reinforcement list. In the Thickness field apply the TH10_CONCR thickness. To assign properties of the recently defined panel activate the Internal Point option and indicate a point within each of the two panels of the longer side wall or provide the numbers (1 and 2) of objects which the contour consists of. Close

Defines panels in the construction as shown in the picture below.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Turn off the Numbers and panel description option on the Finite Elements tab, Turn on the Translucent faces option and Color faces on the Hidden lines tab, Apply, OK

Displays only the elements chosen, closes the dialog box.

Bottom Contour Definition View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box.

Place the cursor at the point determined by the intersection of the following axes: 1, A, Level 1 Apply, Close

Results in entering the appropriate coordinates to the Work Plane dialog box.

View / Projection / Xy

Displays the XY projection. Once the option is selected the structure is set on the XY plane at the recently defined Z coordinate value (default value: Z = 0).

Geometry / Objects / Polyline contour

Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box with Contour option switched on.

Press the Geometry button

Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.

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Switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the consecutive points of the bottom contour as the intersection points of following structure axes: 1, B, 2, B, 2, A, 1, A, 1, B

Defines first contour of the bottom.

Define manually the following points in the green field in the geometry portion of the dialog box: (20.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add (40.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add (40.0, 0.0, 0.0), Add (20.0, 0.0, 0.0), Add (20.0, 20.0, 0.0), Add Close

Defines second contour of the bottom. Closes the Polyline Contour dialog box.

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Displays the 3D structure projection - see the picture below.

Bottom Panel Definition Opens the Panel dialog box. In the Properties field select the Dir_X reinforcement type from the available reinforcement list. In the Thickness field apply the TH12_CONCR thickness. To assign properties of the recently defined panel activate the Internal Point option and indicate a point within each of the two bottom panels or provide the numbers (3 and 4) of the objects that the contour consists of, Close

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Defines panels in the construction - see the picture below.

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Definition of a Contour of the Shorter Side Wall View / Projection / Yz

Displays the YZ plane at the recently defined X coordinate value (the default value: X = 0).

Geometry / Objects / Polyline contour

Opens the Polyline - Contour dialog box with Contour option switched on.

Press the Geometry button

Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.

Switch to the graphic viewer and indicate the consecutive points of the contour of the shorter side wall as the intersection points of the following structure axes: A, Level 2, B, Level 2, B, Level 1, A, Level 1, A, Level 2 Close

Defines the shorter wall contour, closes the Polyline Contour dialog box.

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Displays the 3D structure projection, see the picture below

Definition of the Shorter Wall Panel Opens the Panel dialog box. In the Properties field select the Dir_Z reinforcement type from the available reinforcement list. In the Thickness field apply the TH10_CONCR thickness. To assign properties of the recently defined panel activate the Internal Point option and indicate a point within the shorter side wall panel or provide the number (5) of the object that the contour consists of, Close

Defines panels in the construction - see the picture below.

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To check panel geometry and reinforcement type select View / Display from the menu

Opens the Display dialog box.

On the Finite Elements tab switch on the Numbers and panel description option and on the Others tab turn off the Structural Axis option, OK

Displays the required elements on the screen.

Copying of the Walls Opens the Display dialog box. On the Finite Elements tab switch off the Numbers and panel description option and on the Others tab turn on the Structural Axis option. Apply, OK

Displays selected elements, closes the dialog box.

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Displays the 3D structure projection.

Switch to the graphic viewer and select the shorter wall panel (color of the selected panel changes to red).

Selects the shorter wall members.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

Define the translation vector manually by typing in the coordinates (20,0,0) of the vector or the appropriate node numbers in the Translation Vector edit field; in the Number of Repetitions field set the number of repetitions as 2. Execute, Close

Translates the selected elements, closes the dialog box. The result of the operation is shown in the picture below.

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Select the longer wall panels with the CTRL key pressed (the color of the selected panels changes to red).

Selects the longer wall panels.

Edit / Edit / Translate

Opens the Translation dialog box.

In the Number of Repetitions field define the number of repetitions (1); define the translation vector in the graphical way, Close

Translates the selected elements (see the picture below), closes the dialog box.

Definition of the Container Wall Orientation View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

On the Structure tab select the Local system option Apply, OK

Displays the local system, closes the Display dialog box. Note: All changes will be performed to obtain the local coordinate system orientation as in the picture below.

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Geometry / Properties / Local Panel Direction

Opens the Local System Orientation dialog box.

To change the sense of the normal for the bottom panels indicate the two bottom panels for which the local coordinate system is to be changed, select the Change of local Z-axis sense option, Apply

Changes the orientation of the bottom panels.

To change the sense of the normal for the longer side wall panels locate the cursor in the Panels field and enter numbers of the appropriate panels (in the example 8 and 9), Apply

Changes the orientation for the selected panels.

Check the same parameters for other walls and modify them if necessary View / Display On the Others tab turn the Structural Axis option, OK

Opens the Display dialog box. off

Displays selected elements the Display dialog box.

on

the

screen,

closes

Additional Node Definition Opens the Nodes dialog box presented in the picture below. Enter in the Coordinates field: (20.00,10.00,0.00), Add, Close

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Defines a node at the geometrical center of the bottom, closes the Nodes dialog box.

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Support Definition Opens the Supports dialog box. Opens the Support Definition dialog box, which allows definition of the structure support.

On the Rigid tab set on UX, UY and RZ option.

Once these options are selected the displacements in the X and Y direction as well as the rotation about Z-axis will be blocked.

In the Label field set the name for new support (in the exercise Support_1). Others parameters leave as default, Add, Close

Adds a new support blocking the rotation around Z-axis and the displacement along X and Y-axis, closes the dialog box.

From the list of active supports select the support type Fixed on the Linear tab, LMC in the Current Selection field, and then select graphically, with the CTRL key pressed, all external lines surrounding bottom panels, Apply

Applies the fixed support type to the chosen edges.

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From the list of active supports select the type (Support_1) on the Nodal tab and in the Current Selection field select a node (no. 1 at the geometrical center of the bottom), Apply, Close

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Applies the support which appears on the graphic viewer.

Mesh Parameters Definition Tools / Job Preferences / Meshing Options Modification, press the Advanced options button in the Meshing Options dialog box

Opens the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.

In the Mesh generation field activate the User optionand enter 6 in the Division 1 and Division 2 fields. Other parameters leave as default, OK

Defines mesh generation options, closes the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.

OK

Closes the Job preferences dialog box.

20.2 Load Definition Loads / Loads Types

Opens the Load Types dialog box.

In the Load Types set the load nature as dead and press the New button

Defines the load nature (dead) with the standard name (DL1).

Set the load nature as live and press the New button twice

Defines two live loads with the standard names (LL1, LL2).

To define the subsequent temperature load type, set the load nature as temperature and press the New button, Close

Defines the load nature (temperature) with the standard name (TEMP1). The recently defined loads (DL1, LL1, LL2 and TEMP1) appear on the list of available load cases (see the picture below). Closes the Load Types dialog box.

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Loads / Load Definition

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Opens the Load Definition dialog box. Note: self-weight will be automatically applied to the whole structure. Selects load case.

Select the LL1 case on the list of load cases Switch to the Surface tab and select the Hydrostatic Pressure option

Opens the Pressure dialog box.

In the opened dialog box enter the following values: {0.10} in the Pressure value P field {0.15} in the Unit weight of liquid field {7} in the Liquid level h field, Add

Defines hydrostatic load parameters, closes the Pressure dialog box.

Select the entire external wall (except the bottom walls) with CTRL, Apply

Applies a load resulting from backfill pressure (LL1) to the chosen panels.

Select the LL2 case on the list of load cases

Selects the load case.

Once again select the Hydrostatic Pressure option

Opens the Pressure dialog box.

Define the following parameters: {0} in the Pressure value P. field {0.12} in the Unit weight of liquid field {10} in the Liquid level h field, Add

Defines hydrostatic load parameters, closes the Pressure dialog box.

Select the walls of one of the container chambers (in the example the chamber on the right), Apply

Applies the load resulting from the pressure of water contained in one chamber (LL2) to the selected panels as shown below.

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Select the TEMP1 case on the list of load cases

Selects a load case.

In the Surface tab select the Thermal

Opens the Thermal Load 3p dialog box

Load 3p option On the Values tab with the Uniform option activated, enter the value: 30 in the Gradient field, Add Select all the side walls and bottom walls, Apply

Defines temperature parameters, closes the dialog box. Note: switching on the Uniform option ensures that the temperature load applied to the surface structure element (panel) will be uniform. Applies temperature gradient to the external wall surfaces and the bottom (TEMP1).

Close

Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

20.3 Definition of Load Combinations Loads / Combinations

Opens the Combination Definition/Modification dialog box.

Define all the settings as shown in the picture below, OK

Opens the Combinations dialog box.

Select a load case from the Case List, enter a factor value for the selected load case in the Factor field

Defines the factor value. Note: If the auto option is selected, the factor defined for the selected load nature will be applied automatically.

Press the button and repeat the above operations three times for the consecutive load cases, Apply, Close

Defines load cases for the combination (as shown below), closes the Combinations dialog box. If all the defined load cases are to be considered in the combination, press the button. Note: For all the natures, the default factors have been applied and

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20.4 Result Analysis Runs structure analysis. Results / Maps

Opens the Maps dialog box which is used to display the calculation results in the map form.

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Go to the Loads tab and switch off the Symbols option, Go to the Structure tab and switch off Local system option, OK

Stops presentation of the load symbols and the local system, closes the Display dialog box.

Selects a load case for presentation.

Detailed tab: select the z option in the Displacements - u,w field, Scale tab: select the Basic option in the Color Palette field, Apply

Displays maps of the displacement perpendicular to the element’s surface on the screen (see the picture below). Note: only one value may be selected in the dialog box.

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Results / Plate and Shell Results

Opens the FE Results table.

Open the context menu (RMC), select the Table columns option

Opens the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.

Choose the Displacements u,w in direction z option, OK

Adds another column (with displacements included) to the table. Closes the dialog box.

20.5 Reinforcement Calculations View / Projection / Xy

Displays the XY plane for the recently defined Z-coordinate (the default value: Z=0). Structure components from this plane will be displayed.

Analysis / Design of RC Structure Elements / RC Plate and Shell Design / Required Reinforcement

Displays graphic viewer, Plate and Shell Reinforcement and Reinforcements dialog boxes on the screen.

In the Reinforcements dialog box switch on the Ay option in the [-] Bottom line and then activate the open new window with scale displayed option.

Defines reinforcement parameters.

In the Plate and Shell Reinforcement dialog box press the

Opens the ULS selection dialog box.

button in the ULS line

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In the List of panels enter 3 4 Choose the third load case LL2 and press the

Selects the load case, closes the ULS dialog box.

button, Close

Press the button next to the List of panels edit field In the Selection dialog box, on the Attrib. tab select the Thickness option, then in the selection field select TH12_CONCR (the thickness assigned to the bottom panels) and press the

Once the option is selected, the objects will be added to the current selection. Note: if the selection has not been made, calculations will be performed for the whole structure.

button, Close

In the Method list select analytical method, Calculate

Selects reinforcement calculation options, starts calculations, displays results on the screen. Note: White color in the reinforcement map means that in this area the constructional reinforcement is needed.

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20.6 Mesh Refinement Analysis / Calculation Model / Meshing Options Press the Advanced options button in the Meshing Options dialog box In the Mesh Generation field activate the User option and enter 12 in the Division 1 and Division 2 fields. Other parameters leave as default, OK, accept with Yes the warning about the result status change Analysis / Calculations

Opens the Advanced Meshing Options dialog box.

Changes meshing options, closes the dialog box.

Start calculations, displays the refined mesh on the screen see the picture at the example beginning. Opens the Selection dialog box as shown below.

On the list under the All button select the Panel option. In the field above the Previous button enter the numbers of panels to be chosen (except for panel no. 9) 1to8, Close

Selects panels, closes the dialog box.

Analysis / Calculation Model / Mesh Freeze

Selecting these option results in freezing the mesh hitherto generated for the finite elements. When the calculation model is created again, the mesh will remain unchanged (generation will be performed for panels for which a mesh of finite elements has not been created).

Structure Model/Geometry

Selects the Geometry layout from the list of available Robot Millennium layouts.

View / Projection / Zx

Sets the structure on the ZX plane.

View / Work in 3D / Global Work Plane

Opens the Work Plane dialog box. Note: as the construction is set on the ZX plane, the Work Plane dialog box will display only the Y coordinate field unblocked.

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In the Y coordinate field enter the value 0, Apply

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Selecting this option causes the construction to be edited while being projected on the ZX plane where the Y coordinate value equals 0. Closes the Work Plane dialog box. Opens the Objects toolbar and the Circle dialog box shown below.

In the Definition Method part of the dialog box select the center - radius option

Selecting this option causes the circle to be defined using the center and a point on its circumference.

Open the Geometry part of the dialog box and define the circle by defining the coordinates of the circle center (30.00,0.00,5,00) and entering the radius value (2,50) in the Radius field, Apply, Close

Defines circle, closes the dialog box.

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Analysis / Generation

Calculation

Model

/

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The program begins to generate the calculation model of the structure (finite elements).

View / Projection / 3d xyz

Displays a 3D view of the structure.

Analysis / Calculations

Starts calculations.

Structure Results/Results – maps Detailed tab: select the z option in the Displacements - u,w field, Scale tab: select the Automatic scale option in the Color Palette field, Apply

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Displays maps of the displacement perpendicular to the element’s surface on the screen (see the picture above). Note: only one value may be selected in the dialog box.

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21. Definition of a Steel Container The example presents definition of a steel container model. Hydrostatic pressure and temperature loads as well as wind loads generated according to the ASCE 7-98 code are used here. Data units: (ft) and (kip). The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

in the second row (Shell Design) should be selected.

21.1 Structure Definition New Thickness Definition Geometry / Properties / Thickness

Opens the FE Thickness dialog box. Opens the New Thickness dialog box.

On the Homogeneous tab enter: Thickness field: 1 (in), Material field: STEEL Label field: TH_1’’ for the defined thickness type, Add, Close

Defines new thickness for walls.

Close

Closes the FE Thickness dialog box.

Definition of a Cylinder Object View / Projection / 3d xyz

Displays the 3D structure projection

Geometry / Objects / Cylinder

Opens the Cylinder dialog box.

Center-radius

Changes the method of cylinder base definition to center and radius. Opens the Geometry portion of the dialog box.

Press the Geometry button Point P: 0.0; 0.0; 0.0 Radius: 10 Height: 50

Defines center of the base at point (0; 0; 0), base radius 10 (ft) and cylinder height 50 (ft).

Press the Parameters button

Opens the Parameters portion of the dialog box.

Sides: 24 Number of divisions: 10

The base circle is approximated by a 2D figure having 24 sides, side surface of the cylinder is divided into 10 finite elements over the height.

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Apply

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Defines the cylinder, see the figure below

Support Definition Opens the Supports dialog box. From the list of active supports select the Pinned support type onthe Planar tab, LMC in the Current Selection field and then select graphically the bottom panel of the cylinder – object 1_REF(1),

Defines a support on the cylinder base.

Close

Closes the Supports dialog box.

21.2 Load Definition Loads / Load Types

Opens the Load Types dialog box.

In the Load Types dialog box set the load nature as dead and press the New button

Defines the load nature (dead) with the standard name (DL1).

Set the load nature as live and press the New button

Defines the live load with the standard name (LL1).

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To define the subsequent temperature load type, set the load nature as temperature and press the New button, Close

Defines the load nature (temperature) with the standard name (TEMP1). The recently defined loads (DL1, LL1 and TEMP1) appear on the list of available load cases. Closes the Load Types dialog box.

Loads / Load Definition

Opens the Load Definition dialog box. Note: self-weight will be automatically applied to the whole structure.

Select the LL1 case on the list of load cases

Selects load case.

Switch to the Surface tab and select the Hydrostatic Pressure icon

Opens the Pressure dialog box.

In the opened dialog box enter the following values: {0.15} in the Unit weight of liquid field {40} in the Liquid level h field, Add

Defines hydrostatic load parameters, closes the Pressure dialog box.

On the Apply to list enter the number of the cylinder object: 1, Apply

Defines hydrostatic load on the cylinder

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Positive hydrostatic pressure in the program acts in conformity with the normal axis sense in the local system of the plane; take note that in the cylinder base the system should be reversed for the load to act in conformity with the hydrostatic pressure

Definition of the Cylinder Wall Orientation Geometry / Properties / Local Panel Direction

Opens the Local System Orientation dialog box.

To change the sense of the normal to the bottom panels indicate the bottom panel of cylinder – object 1_REF(1), select the Change of local Z-axis sense option, Apply, close the Local System Orientation dialog box

Changes the orientation of the bottom panels.

Load applied to the cylinder base has been reversed together with the normal axis sense in the local system of the plane.

Temperature Load Definition Select the TEMP1 case on the list of load cases

Selects the load case.

On the Surface tab select the Thermal Load 3p option

Opens the Thermal Load 3p dialog box

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In the Values field with the Uniform option activated, enter the value: 100 in the Temperature dT1 field, Add

Defines temperature parameters, closes the dialog box.

Select the side walls of the cylinder (object 1_Side(1)), Apply

Applies temperature to the external wall surfaces (TEMP1).

Close

Closes the Load Definition dialog box.

Wind Load Definition Loads / Special loads / Wind on cylinders

Opening of the Snow/Wind Loads dialog box for wind load generation according to ASCE 7-98

Define the following parameters: active options: Wind : X+

The program generates the wind load from the direction X+ for the object with vertical axis Z, at point (0; 0; 0)

change the option: Structure type Category: moderately smooth Number of faces: 24

Note: The number of faces should be congruous with the number of faces in an axisymmetric object.

round

Press the Parameters button

Opens the additional dialog box (Snow/Wind Loads), where detailed parameters may be defined

Define parameters of the snow/wind load: General tab: Exposure category: A Building category: II Basic wind velocity: 90 (mph)

Defines parameters of wind loads

the Specific tab:

Defines parameters of wind loads

For Gust effect factor Gset the value Building natural frequency - n1 : 6.66

the Segments tab: Define Name: A, Height 30 (ft), New Define Name: B, Height 50 (ft), New

Defines successive segments. For each of the segments, i.e. parts over the object height, the wind load is generated independently because of varying wind pressure or structure width. Pressing the button starts the generation of snow and wind loads with the accepted parameters.

Generate Close the editor calculation notes

Note: the natural frequency can be calculated by means of dynamic modal analysis.

showing

the

The calculation note appears on the screen. It presents the parameters of snow/wind load cases

View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Go to the Loads tab and switch on the Symbols option, OK

Presents the load symbols, closes the Display dialog box.

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21.3 Definition of Load Combinations Loads / Combinations

Opens the Combination Definition / Modification dialog box.

Define all the settings as shown in the picture below, OK

Opens the Combinations dialog box.

Select a load case from the Case List, enter a factor value for the selected load case in the Factor field

Defines the factor value. Note: if the auto option is selected, the factor defined for the selected load nature will be applied automatically according to the code combination selected in Job Preferences.

Press the button and repeat the above operations three times for the consecutive load cases (1 to 3), Apply,

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Defines load cases for the combination (as shown below).

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New

Defines a new combination.

Yes in the message box

Saves the previous combination

Default settings, OK

Applies default settings and name to the new combination. Opens the Combinations dialog box.

Choose a load case and press the

Defines load cases for the combination: DL1 + LL1 + WindX

button for the load cases (1 2 and 4), Apply, New

Defines a new combination.

Yes int the message box

Saves the previous combination

Default settings, OK

Applies default settings and name to the new combination. Opens the Combinations dialog box.

Choose a load case and press the

Defines load cases for the combination: DL1 + Wind X. Closes the Combinations dialog box.

button for the load cases (1 and 4), Apply, Close

21.4 Result Analysis Runs structure analysis. View / Display

Opens the Display dialog box.

Go to the Loads tab and switch off the Symbols option

Stops presentation of the load symbols.

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Go to the Finite elements tab and switch off the Numbers and panels description option, OK

Stops presentation of the object descriptions; closes the Display dialog box.

Results / Maps

Opens the Maps dialog box, which is used to display the calculation results in the map form. Selects a load case for presentation. The envelope of all combination cases will be displayed on maps.

Detailed tab: select the z option in the Displacements - z field, Apply

Displays maps of the displacement normal to the element’s surface on the screen (see the figure below).

Open new window with scale displayed, Apply

Opens a new window with the view of a displacement map and scale.

Results / Plate and Shell Results

Opens the FE Results table.

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Open the context menu (RMC), select the Table columns option

Opens the Results for Finite Elements dialog box.

Switch on the None option on the Detailed tab

Excludes results given on the Detailed tab from the table.

The Complex tab; switch on Stresses-s

Adds to the table – stresses reduced according to the von Mises hypothesis.

The Parameter tab; change the Layer selection to upper, OK

Selects stresses for the upper layer, Closes the Results for Finite Elements dialog box. Selects the load case for presentation. The combination cases will be displayed in the table.

Change to Global extremes tab in the table.

Calculates maximum stresses for combination cases in the table.

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22. Definition of a Solid / Thin-walled Section The example presents the definition of solid/thin-walled sections. The results obtained for the sections mentioned are also presented here. The sections are saved to the user’s database. Data units: (ft) and (kip). The following rules apply during structure definition: • any icon symbol means that the relevant icon is pressed with the left mouse button, • ( x ) stands for selection of the ‘x’ option in the dialog box or entering the ‘x’ value, • LMC and RMC - abbreviations for the Left Mouse button Click and the Right Mouse button Click. To run structure definition start the Robot program (press the appropriate icon or select the command from the taskbar). The vignette window (described in chapter 2.1 of the manual) will be displayed on

the screen and the icon

in the last row (Section definition) should be selected.

22.1 Solid Section PERFORMED OPERATION

DESCRIPTION

File / New Section / Solid

Starts definition of a solid section.

View / Grid Step

Opens the Grid step definition dialog box.

{Dx}, {Dy} = 0.2

Defines a grid step.

Apply, Close

Closes the dialog box. Opens the Circle dialog box.

Enter the following points in the Center and Radius fields: Center: (0,0), Radius: 4, Apply

Defines the external circle.

Enter the following points in the Center and Radius fields: Center: (0,0), Radius: 3.8, Apply

Defines the internal circle.

Closes the Circle dialog box. LMC on the external contour

Selects the external contour.

Contour / Properties

Opens the Properties dialog box.

STEEL, Apply, Cancel

Selects the material type and closes the dialog box.

Results / Geometric Properties / Results

Starts calculations of section properties. The dialog box presented below is opened on the screen.

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Switch on the Torsional constant option, Calculate

Starts calculations of the torsional constant. The results are presented on the Principal tab.

Calculation Note

Opens the calculation note with the section data and results.

Close the calculation note LMC on the Close button

Closes the Results dialog box.

File / Save to Databases

Opens the Saving section to databases dialog box.

Enter: Database: User Name: Circ Dimension 1: 4.0 Dimension 2: 0.2 Dimension 3: 0.2

Sets the section properties.

Section Type: select circle symbol

Selects the section type.

Enter: h = 4.0, t = 0.2

Defines section dimensions.

OK

Saves the section to the database.

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22.2 Thin-Walled Section Starts definition of the thin-walled section. Opens the Section definition dialog box. Selects the method of section definition.

Enter a thickness value: 0.08

Defines the thickness of the thin-walled section.

Enter the following points: P1 (0.0, 0.0), Apply P2 (3.0, 0.0), Apply P2 (0.0, -3.0), Apply P2 (3.0, -3.0), Apply

Defines the characteristic points of a Z-shaped section.

Closes the Section definition dialog box. Results / Geometric Properties / Results

Starts calculations of section properties. The dialog box presented below is opened on the screen.

LMC on the Close button

Closes the Results dialog box.

Results / Geometric Properties / Graphical Results

Opens the Diagrams dialog box.

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Turn the Somega (s) option on, Apply

Selection of section properties for presentation. The diagram shown below will be presented on the Zshaped section.

Close

Closes the Diagrams dialog box.

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