Railway+Engineering.pdf

September 15, 2017 | Pengarang: Madhu Kumar | Kategori: Track (Rail Transport), Rail Transport, Tunnel, Track Gauge, Train Station
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RAILWAY ENGINEERING [ ENTIRELY IN SI UN I T S ] 

By Rangawala Edition ISBN Size Binding Pages

: 23rd Edition : 2012 : 978 - 93 - 80358 - 50 - 5 : 135 mm × 210 mm : Paperback with 4 color Jacket Cover : 480 + 16

` 120.00 Charotar

About the book

This well-known text-book now in its Twenty Second Edition, provides an up-to-date account of the basic principles on various functions and working of Railways. Its excellent material fills a significant void in the literature of Railway Engineering. Chapter of Rapid Transit System which contains latest information on Delhi Metro, Kolkata Metro, Dubai Metro and Tube Railways. The substantial new matter with sufficient new solved problems covering the new syllabus in railway engineering of almost all the Indian Universities as well as Polytechnic Institutions are added. Examples of latest and modern railways and tunnels constructed during past decade are cited at appropriate places. The updated Appendix-I and Appendix-II and also Three new Appendices are adding important information. Appendix-III describes some of the Famous Indian Trains, Appendix-IV contains the list of Abbreviated Terms used in the book and in Appendix-V Multiple Choice Questions, covering whole book at a glance are added. All the articles have been given the numbers to enhance the readability and convenience of the reader. The topics of the subject are covered in 23 well-arranged chapters and 5 appendices; it now contains:

* 233 * 26 * 27 * 371

Self-explanatory and Neatly Drawn Diagrams Useful Tables Solved Illustrative Problems Questions at the end of the chapters.

The book should prove to be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering students preparing for the Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E., I.E.S. and other similar competitive and professional examinations. It should also prove of interest to the practising professionals.

CONTENT 1 : INTRODUCTION 2 : RAILWAY SURVEYS 3 : TRAIN RESISTANCES AND ROLLING STOCK 4 : RAIL GAUGES 5 : RAILS 6 : RAIL FASTENINGS 7 : SLEEPERS 8 : BALLAST 9 : PLATE-LAYING 10 : MAINTENANCE 11 : CREEP 12 : CURVATURE OF TRACK 13 : STATIONS AND YARDS 14 : STATION MACHINERY 15 : POINTS AND CROSSINGS 16 : COMBINATIONS OF POINTS AND CROSSINGS 17 : SIGNALLING 18 : INTERLOCKING 19 : RAILWAY TRACTION 20 : EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE 21 : TUNNELLING 22 : RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM 23 : MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Appendix I UNITS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAYS Appendix II TRAINING INSTITUTIONS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAYS Appendix III FAMOUS INDIAN TRAINS Appendix IV Abbreviated Terms Appendix V Multiple Choice

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Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION 1-1 Brief history of railways 1-2 Future of railways (1) General (i) Inland water transportation (ii) Ocen water transportation (2) Characteristics of railways (3) Advantages of railways (i) Economic advantages (ii) Political advantages (iii) Social advantages (4) Trends in morden railways (5) Conclusion 1-3 Trains of tomorrow (Maglev Trains) 1-4 Automatic train operation 1-5 Indian railways 1-6 Development of the Indian railway (1) The old guarantee system (1849-1869) (2) State construction and ownership (1869 1882) (3) The modified guarantee system (1882-1924) (4) Nationalisation (1924-1944) (5) Integration and regrouping (1924-1966) 1-7 Classification of Indian Railways (1) Trunk routes On Broad Gauge, On Metre Gauge (2) Main lines (3) Branch lines 1-8 Achievements of Indian Railways 1-9 Future plan of Indian Railways 1-10 Summary Questions Chapter 2 : RAILWAY SURVEYS 2-1 Reasons for laying a new railway line (1) Straegic consideration (2) Linking of trade centres (3) Connecting port with the interior of the country (4) Shortening existing route (5) Laying of a branch line (6) Undeveloped area 2-2 Factors influencing the proposed route (1) Cost (2) Safety (3) Speed 2-3 Railway surveys 2-3-1 Reconnaissance survey (1) Objects of reconnaissance survey (2) Importance of reconnaissance survey (3) Information gathered in reconnaissance survey (4) Factors to be kept in view during reconnais sance survey (5) Instruments for reconnaissance survey 2-3-2 Preliminary survey (1) Object of preliminarysurvey (2) Importance of preliminary syrvey (3) Work of preliminary survey (4) Instruments for prelliminery survey 2-3-3 Location survey (1) Object of location survey 2-3-4 Railway Electrification Survey 2-4 Project report and drawings 2-5 Construction of new lines Stage I Stage II Stage III Questions 2

Chapter 3 : TRAIN RESISTANCES AND ROLLING STOCK 3-1 Train resistances (1) Resistance due to friction and wave action (2) Resistance due to curves (3) Resistance due to gradients (4) Resistance due to speed of the train 3-2 Rolling stock 3-2-1 Locomotives (1) Definition (2) Types of locomotives (3) Essential parts of a locomotive (i) Fire box and boiler (iii) Framework (ii) Proper engine (iv) Tenders (4) Design of locomotive (5) Classification (6) Power of locomotive 3-2-2 Coaches (1) Earlier coaches (3) Double decker coaches (2) Modern coaches 3-2-3 Wagons (1) Timber truck wagon (2) Cattle wagon (3) Oil tank wagon (4) Petrol tank wagon (5) Hopper wagon (6) Powder wagon (7) Well wagon (8) Refrigerated wagon (9) Spcial wagons 3-3 Train-brakes (1) Compressed air brakes (fig. 3-11) (i) Essential parts (iii) Defects (ii) Working (2) Vacuum brakes (fig. 3-12) (i) Essential parts (iii) Advantages (ii) Working (3) Axle-mounted brake (4) Magnetic 3-4 Dynamometer car (1) Rotating drum (2) Pendulums (i) Physcial features (iii) Side shocks (ii) Rolling parameters (iv) Vechile oscillation Questions 3 Chapter 4 : RAIL GAUGES 4-1 Definition of gauge of track 4-2 Gauges in different countries (1) Traffic condition (2) Development of poor areas (3) Cost of track (4) Speed of movement (5) Nature od country (i) Broad gauge (iii) Metre gauge (ii) Standard gauge (iv) Narrow gauge 4-3 Uniformity in gauges (1) Difficulties to passengers (2) Difficulties for sending goods (3) Inefficient use of rolling stock (4) Difficulty in war (5) Equipment at station (6) Hindrance for future conversion 4-4 Unigauge project of Indian railways 4-5 Loading gauge and construction gauge Questions 4

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Chapter 5 : RAILS 5-1 Permanent way and its requirements 5-2 Functions of rails 5-3 Requirements of an ideal rail 5-4 Types of rails (1) Double headed rails (3) Flat footed rails (2) Bull headed rails 5-5 Steel for rails (1) Medium manganese steel (3) Chromium steel (2) High manganese steel 5-6 Weight and section of rails (1) Cost (3) Waste of power (2) Durability of track 5-7 Marking on rails 5-8 Corrugated or roaring rails (1) Meaning (5) Types (2) Causes (6) Peculiar properties (3) Occurrence (7) Remedy (4) Effects 5-9 Corrosion of rails 5-10 Length of rail 5-11 Welding of rails (1) Theory (3) Advantages of welding of rails (2) Purposes (4) Methods of welding 5-12 Wear of rails (1) Wear of rails on top or head of rail (2) Wear of rails at ends of rails (3) Wear of rail on the sides of the head of rail 5-13 Methods adopted to reduce wear of rails (1) Use of special alloy steel (5) Introducing check rails (2) Good maintenance of track (6) Use of lubricating oil (3) Reduction of expansion gap (7) Head hardened rails (4) Exchange of inner and outer rails on curves 5-14 Measuring wear of rails 5-15 Renewal of rails (1) Wear of rails (3) Construction of branch lines (2) Use of heavier locomotives (4) Bending of rails 5-16 Failure of rails (1) Crushed head (3) Split head (2) Transverse fissure (4) Horizontal fissure 5-17 Coning of wheels 5-18 Hogged rails 5-19 Buckling Questions 5 Chapter 6 : RAIL FASTENINGS 6-1 Rail joints 6-2 Avoidance of rail joints 6-3 Types of rail joints (1) Types according to position of joints (2) Types according to position of sleepers 6-4 Requirements of an ideal fastening 6-5 Fastenings for rails 6-5-1 Fish-plates (1) Purpose (4) Compound or junction (2) Design fish-plates (3) Details (5) Failures of fish-plates 6-5-2 Spikes, fang-bolts and hook-bolts (1) Spikes (3) Hook-bolts (2) Fang-bolts 6-5-3 Chairs and keys 6-5-4 Bearing-plates (1) Bearing area (5) Wear of spikes (2) Rail-cutting (6) Maintenance (3) Soil cutting on curves (7) Cost (4) Stability Questions 6

Chapter 7 : SLEEPERS 7-1 Functions of sleepers 7-2 Types of sleepers (1) Longitudinal sleepers (2) Transverse sleepers 7-3 Requirements of an ideal material for sleeper 7-4 Materials for cross-sleepers (1) Timber or worden sleepers (3) Cast-iron sleepers (2) Steel sleepers (4) Concrete sleepers 7-5 Sleeper density Questions 7 Chapter 8 : BALLAST 8-1 Functions of ballast 8-2 Requirements of an ideal material for ballast 8-3 Materials used as ballast (1) Broken stone (5) Kankar (2) Gravel (6) Moorum (3) Ashes or cinders (7) Brickbata (4) Sand (8) Selected earth 8-4 Size and quantity of ballast 8-5 Screening of ballast Questions 8 Chapter 9 : PLATE-LAYING 9-1 Meaning of the term 9-2 Methods of plate-laying (1) Tram line or side method (3) American method (2) Telescopic method 9-3 Materials required per unit length of track 9-4 Ballast trains 9-5 Relaying of track Questions Chapter 10 : MAINTENANCE 10-1 General (1) Foundations (2) Nature of structure 10-2 Necessity for maintenance of track (1) New track (2) Constant use 10-2-1 Maintenance of track proper (1) Duties of a gangmate or a ganger (2) Duties of a keyman (3) Duties of a Permanent Way Inspector (P.W.I.) 10-2-2 Maintenance of railway bridges 10-2-3 Maintenance of rolling stock 10-3 Accidents (1) General (4) Preventive measures (2) Causes of accidents (3) Points to be observed at the time of accident 10-4 Signalling during maintenance 10-5 Estimating speed of a running train (1) Counting the rail joints passed (2) Counting the telegraph posts 10-6 Speed restriction 10-7 Tools required during maintenance 10-8 Packing 10-9 Rail inspection 10-10 Track inspection 10-11 Maintenance and boxing of ballast 10-12 Track imprest 10-13 Trackwork for high speeds 10-14 Speeds on the Indian railways (1) Brakes and signals (6) Energy consumption (2) Cattle and trespassers (7) Level-crossings (3) Curves (8) Locomotives (4) Deterioration of track (9) On-board facilities in trains and rolling stock (10) Sharing of routes (5) Dust nuisance 10-15 Emergency measures Questions

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Chapter 11 : CREEP 11-1 Definition 11-2 Causes of creep (1) Brakes (3) Percussion (2) Wave action or wave theory (4) Changes in temperature 11-3 Factors determining magnitude of creep (1) Alignment of track (4) Embankments (2) Gradient of track (5) Weight and type of rail (3) Direction of motion of trains 11-4 Results of creep 11-5 Method of measuring the creep 11-6 Methods of correcting the creep Questions Chapter 12 : CURVATURE OF TRACK 12-1 Objections to curvature of track 12-2 Designation of a curve 12-3 Types of curves and Limiting radius or degree of curvature 12-4 Transition curves (1) Requirements of teansition curve (2) Forms of transition curve (3) Lenght of transition curve (4) Shift 12-5 Super-elevation or cant 12-6 Factors affecting super-elevation (1) Frictional resistance (3) Body of the vechile (2) Coning of wheels (4) Weighted average 12-7 Speed of trains on curves 12-8 Cant deficiency and Negative super-elevation 12-9 Cant excess 12-10 Grade compensation on curves 12-11 Bending of rails on curves 12-12 Cutting of rails on curves 12-13 Widening gauge on curves 12-14 Spirals 12-15 Switch-backs 12-16 Rack railways 12-17 String-lining of curves 12-18 Tilting train Questions 12 Chapter 13 : STATIONS AND YARDS 13-1 General 13-2 Definition of a station Class A, Class B, Class C 13-3 Purposes of a railway station 13-4 Selection of site for a railway station 13-5 Features of a railway station (1) Public requirements (4) General requirements (2) Traffic requirements (3) Requirements of locomotive department 13-6 Types of stations (1) Wayside stations (3) Terminals (2) Junctions 13-7 Platforms (1) Passenger platforms (2) Goods platforms 13-8 Staff quarters 13-9 Goods traffic at wayside stations Case I Case II 13-10 Catch sidings 13-11 Definition of a yard 13-12 Types of yards 13-12-1 Passenger yards 13-12-2 Goods yards 13-12-3 Marshalling yards 13-12-4 Locomotive yards 13-13 Level-crossing Questions 13

Chapter 14 : STATION MACHINERY 14-1 Meaning of the term 14-2 Engine sheds (1) Rectangular type engine shed (fig. 14-1) (2) Circular type engine shed (fig. 14-2) 14-3 Ash-pits, ash-pans and examination pits 14-4 Drop pits 14-5 Water columns 14-6 Triangles 14-7 Turntables 14-8 Traversers 14-9 Cranes (1) Fixed-jib crane (2) Mobile crane (3) Gantry consisting of two parallel beams (4) Goliath 14-10 Weigh-bridges 14-11 Scotch blocks 14-12 Bufferstops 14-13 Derailing switch or trap switch 14-14 Sand hump on snag dead-end 14-15 Cow catcher Questions Chapter 15 : POINTS AND CROSSINGS 15-1 Purpose for providing points and crossings 15-2 Some definitions 15-3 Sleepers laid for points and crossings (1) Through sleepers (fig. 15-2) (2) Interlaced sleepers (fig. 15-3) 15-4 Steel for points and crossings 15-5 Switches (1) Stub switch (2) Split switch (i) Loose-heel type or articulated type switch (ii) Fixed-heel type or spring switch or flexible switch 15-6 Shapes of switches (1) Undercut switches (2) Straight cut switches (3) Over-rigiding switchness or composite switches 15-7 Lengths of stock rails and tongue rails 15-8 Heel divergence or heel clearance 15-9 Switch angle 15-10 Throw of switch 15-11 Crossings 15-12 Types of crossings (1) Ordinary or acute crossing (2) Double or obtuse crossing (fig. 15-14) 15-13 Theoretical nose of crossing (T.N.C.) and actual nose of crossing (A.N.C.) 15-14 Crossing clearance 15-15 Crossing number 15-16 Crossing angle (1) Right angle or Cole’s method (2) Centre-line method (3) Isosceles triangle method 15-17 Different types of leads and their calculations 15-18 Laying of points and crossings (1) Where there is no traffic interruption as in case of a new turnout (2) Under traffic whee the line is available for a few hours only 15-19 Maintenance of points and crossings Questions

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Chapter 16 : COMBINATIONS OF POINTS AND CROSSINGS 16-1 General (1) Cross-overs (6) Tandems or double turnouts (2) Scissors cross-overs (7) Gathering lines or ladder tracks (3) Slips (8) Gauntlet tracks (4) Fixed point (9) Double junctions (5) Three throws Questions 16 Chapter 17 : SIGNALLING 17-1 General 17-2 Objects of signalling 17-3 Types of signals 17-3-1 Classification according to function (1) Stop signals or semaphore type signals (i) Essential features (ii) Working of semaphore signal (2) Warner signals (3) Disc or ground signals (4) Coloured light signals Working of coloured light singls 17-3-2 Classification according to location (1) Outer signal (3) Starter signal (2) Home signal (4) Advance starter signal 17-3-3 Special signals (1) Routing signals (4) Calling-on signals (2) Repeating signals (5) Indicators (3) Co-acting signals (6) Miscellaneous signals 17-4 Typical layouts (1) Signalling at divergning junction (2) Signalling at converging junction (3) Signalling at a junction of two main lines ans two branch lines with a siding 17-5 Control of movements of trains (1) Following trains system (5) Centralized traffic control (2) Absolute block system system (3) Automatic signalling (6) Cab signalling system (4) Pilot guard system (7) TGV signalling system 17-6 Telecommunication 17-7 Compensators 17-8 Fouling marks 17-9 Track capacity 17-10 Electrification on the Indian railways Questions 17 Chapter 18 : INTERLOCKING 18-1 Definition 18-2 Essential principles of interlocking 18-3 Methods of interlocking (1) Tappets and locks system (3) Route relay system (RRS) (2) Key system (i) Single lock and key system (ii) Double lock and key system 18-4 Slotting of signals (1) Meaning of the term (2) Principles (3) Purposes (4) Methods (i) Electric system (ii) Mechanical system 18-5 Detectors 18-6 Point lock and treadle or lock bar 18-7 Interlocking of level-crossings 18-8 Interlocking standards (1) Automatic signalling (4) Isolation of main line (2) Grouping of levers (5) Large stations (3) Interlocking (6) Starting signals 18-9 Improvements in interlocking and signalling Questions

Chapter 19 : RAILWAY TRACTION 19-1 Tractive effort of a locomotive 19-2 Track stresses (1) Elastic theory (2) Procedure for determining track stresses Questions Chapter 20 : EARTHWORK AND DRAINAGE 20-1 General 20-2 Usual forms of cross-sections 20-3 Features of railroad bed level (1) Width of formation (3) Drains (2) Slopes of sides (4) Method of construction 20-4 Drainage (1) Action of water (2) Importance of drainage (3) Requirements of drainage system 20-5 Stabilization of track on poor soil (1) Layer or blanket of moorum or sand (2) Cement grouting (3) Sand piles (4) Use of chemicals ­­­­(5) By providing capillary break or cut-off Questions Chapter 21 : TUNNELLING 21-1 General 21-2 Definition of a tunnel 21-3 Advantages and disadvantages of tunnels and open cuts (1) Advamtages to tunnels (2) Disadvantages of tunnels (1) Advantages of open cutss (2) Disadvantages of open cuts 21-4 Setting out of tunnel (1) Setting out tunnel on ground surface Curved line alignment (2) Transfer of centre line from surface to underground (3) Underground setting out (fig. 21-4 and fig. 21-5) (4) Underground levelling Grades in a tunnel 21-5 Tunnelling through rock (1) Full face method (2) Heading and bench system (fig. 21-8) (3) Cantilever car dump method (fig. 21-9) (4) Drift system (fig. 21-10) (5) Pilot tunnel method (fig. 21-11) 21-6 Tunnelling through soft ground (1) Forepoling method (3) Five-piece set method (2) Needle beam method (4) Liner plates method 21-7 Methods of tunnelling through sub-aqueous strata (1) Shield tunnelling (2) Plenum process or compressed air tunneling 21-8 Drainage of tunnels (1) Sumps and pumps (3) Piloy tunnel (2) Grouting 21-9 Ventilation of tunnels 21-10 Dust control in tunnels (1) General (2) Dust control methods 21-11 Lighting In tunnel 21-12 Shafts (1) Drilling (3) Gloryholing (2) Raising 21-13 Mucking (1) Manual labour (3) Mucking machines (2) Power shovels (4) Tractor loaders 21-14 Hauling 21-15 Lining of tunnels 21-16 Size and shape of tunnels 21-17 Maintenance of railway tunnels Questions 21

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Chapter 22 : RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM 22-1 General 22-2 Underground railways 22-3 Kolkata Metro 22-4 Delhi Metro 22-5 Dubai MeTr, Red line, Green line, Blue line (Proposed) Purple line (Purposed) 22-6 Tube railways Questions 22 Chapter 23 : MATERIALS MANAGEMENT 23-1 Meaning of the term 23-2 Necessity in railways 23-3 Stores (1) Condification (7) Sectionalization (2) Divisions (8) Storage of materials (3) Internal transport (9) Storage of tools (4) Layout (10) Usual facilities (5) Location (11) Valuable articles (6) Material chart 23-4 Purchasing department (1) Co-operation with other (3) Organization departments (4) Procedure for purchasing (2) Market trends (5) Records 23-5 Store keeping (1) Accounting (5) Maxima and minima (2) Checking (6) Surplus materials (3) Golden rule (7) Tools (4) Issuing materials 23-6 Stock control (1) ABC analysis (2) VED analysis 23-7 Spare parts management (1) Classification (3) Initial provisioning (2) Codification (4) Selective control 23-8 Importance Questions 23 Appendix I UNITS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAYS (1) Chittaranjan Locomotive Works (2) Integral Coach Factory (3) Diesel Locomotive Works (4) Rail Coach Factory (RCF), Kapurthala (5) Research, Designs and Standards Organization (6) Rail India Technical and Economic Services Limited (RITES) (7) Indian Railway Construction Company Limited (IRCON)

Appendix II TRAINING INSTITUTIONS OF THE INDIAN RAILWAYS (1) The Railway Staff College, Vadodara (2) Indian Railways Institute of Civil Engineering (IRICEN), Pune (3) Indian Railways Institute of Signal Engineering and Tele- communications (IRISET), Secunderabad (4) Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering,Jamalpur (5) Institute for Signal and Civil Engineeing Officers at South Lallaguda, Secunderabad (6) Indian Railways Institute of Electrical Engineering (IRIEEN), Nasik (7) Indian Railways Institute of Transport Management (IRITM), Lucknow (8) Jagjivan Ram Railway Protection Force Academy, Lucknow Appendix III FAMOUS INDIAN TRAINS (1) Palace on Wheels (2) Royal Orient (3) Fairy Queen (4) Kangra Queen (5) Desert Queen (6) Deccan Odyssey (7) Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) (8) Nilgiri Mountain Railway (or Ooty Rack Railway) (9) Toy Trains (10) Rajdhani Trains (11) Shatabdi Express Trains (12) Frontier Mail (13) Flying Ranee (14) Deccan Queen (15) Boat Mail (16) Janata Express, Jansewa Express, Matrubhumi Express, Jana Shatabdi Express, Garib Rathtrains (17) Samjhauta Express (18) Lifeline Express (19) Patiala State Monorail (20) The Presidential Saloon (21) DEMU, MEMU, EMU trains Appendix IV ABBREVIATED TERMS Appendix V MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY

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