Paquito DRivera10 Guide

September 15, 2017 | Pengarang: Miguel Angel Guardia García | Kategori: Jazz, Performing Arts, Pop Culture, Jazz Music, Leisure
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Passport TO CULTURE

Teacher’s Resource Guide SCH

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Photo: Alberto Romeu

Latin Jazz Paquito D’Rivera

Generous support for Schooltime provided, in part, by

Arts Education and You

just imagine

The New Jersey Performing Arts Center (NJPAC) Arts Education Department presents the 12th season of the Verizon Passport to Culture SchoolTime Performance Series. With Passport to Culture, Verizon and NJPAC open up a world of culture to you and your students, offering the best in live performance from a wide diversity of traditions and disciplines. At NJPAC’s state-of-the-art facility in Newark, with support from Verizon, the SchoolTime Performance Series enriches the lives of New Jersey’s students and teachers by inviting them to see, feel, and hear the joy of artistic expression. The exciting roster of productions features outstanding New Jersey companies as well as performers of national and international renown. Meet-the-artist sessions and NJPAC tours are available to expand the arts adventure. The Verizon Passport to Culture SchoolTime Performance Series is one of many current arts education offerings at NJPAC. Others include: • Professional Development Workshops that support the use of the arts to enhance classroom curriculum • Arts Academy school residency programs in dance, theater and literature, and Early Learning Through the Arts – the NJ Wolf Trap Program • After-school residencies with United Way agencies

Foundation Kid Power! Through energy efficiency and conservation, kids can help preserve our planet’s rich natural resources and promote a healthy environment.

In association with statewide arts organizations, educational institutions, and generous funders, the Arts Education Department sponsors the following arts training programs: • Wachovia Jazz for Teens • The All-State Concerts • The Star-Ledger Scholarship for the Performing Arts • The Jeffery Carollo Music Scholarship • Summer Youth Performance Workshop • Young Artist Institute • NJPAC/New Jersey Youth Theater Summer Musical Program

Tip of the Day It is entertaining to listen to music (like the music of Paquito D’Rivera) on your television, radio, stereo, or computer. To minimize the amount of electricity these devices require to function, turn them off when you leave a room. Made possible through the generosity of the PSEG Foundation.

Students have the opportunity to audition for admission to NJPAC’s arts training programs during NJPAC’s annual Young Artist Talent Search. Detailed information on these programs is available online at njpac.org. Click on Education. The Teacher’s Resource Guide and additional activities and resources for each production in the Verizon Passport to Culture SchoolTime Series are also online. Click on Education, then on Performances. Scroll down to “Download Teacher Guide in Adobe Acrobat PDF format” and select desired guide. Permission is granted to copy this Teacher’s Resource Guide for classes attending the 2009-2010 Verizon Passport to Culture SchoolTime Performance Series. All other rights reserved.

CONTENTS On Stage

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In the Spotlight

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Music Talk

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A Brief History of Latin Jazz

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Before and After Activities

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Teaching Science Through Music

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Delving Deeper

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To Teachers and Parents The resource guide accompanying each performance is designed • to maximize students’ enjoyment and appreciation of the performing arts; • to extend the impact of the performance by providing discussion ideas, activities, and further reading that promote learning across the curriculum; • to promote arts literacy by expanding students’ knowledge of music, dance, and theater; • to illustrate that the arts are a legacy reflecting the traditional values, customs, beliefs, expressions, and reflections of a culture; • to use the arts to teach about the cultures of other people and to celebrate students’ own heritage through self-expression; • to reinforce the New Jersey Department of Education’s Core Curriculum Content Standards in the arts.

Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

On Stage for which Cuba is internationally known. All of these sounds fed into the young musician’s consciousness, along with the jazz and classical music that he loved, studied and later incorporated into his own unique mix.

Photo: Andrew Lepley

Photo: Léon Gniwesch

As one of the strongest music cultures in Latin America, Cuba boasts music and musicians that have achieved prominence and influence the world over including in Africa where – beginning in the 1930s – the Cuban son became a major inspiration for generations of African pop musicians. Musicians and groups such as Perez Prado, Israel “Cachao” Lopez, Los Muñequitos de Matanzas, Trio Matamoros, Mongo Santamaria, Paquito, and many others are the “best of the best” musicians from a country where even informal neighborhood jam sessions (or rumbas) yield extremely good music and dance.

Cuban saxophonist, clarinetist and composer Paquito D’Rivera returns to NJPAC with a new project and a band he calls Cuban Jazz, the Next Generation (CJNG). The concert will feature Latin jazz and “Cubanized” music that will be sure to engage the audience’s ears as well as its feet. Although Paquito co-founded and co-directed the Cuban super-group Irakere prior to his coming to the United States, he has never led a Cuban band of his own. This is ironic, considering Paquito has led other bands that played all Brazilian and all

Argentinean music. Doing something new and different, however, is an integral part of Paquito’s artistry. As Paquito says, “I’m a Gemini, so I like doing different things all the time − from writing an opera…to playing Brahms with Yo-Yo Ma or a samba with Leny Andrade.” Looking back is just as important as his desire for the new, so the CJNG project is also “coming back to visit the Havana neighborhood” where Paquito was raised. This neighborhood is full of different kinds of music including folk, classical, jazz, popular, and the many Afro-Cuban styles of music (and dance)

So be prepared to hear Cuban music as well as “Cubanized” music. Perhaps Paquito will “Cubanize” some pieces by Benny Goodman, the 1930s American bandleader, clarinetist and “King of Swing,” whose centenary is being celebrated worldwide this year. Then again, you might hear a jazz standard like On Green Dolphin Street. In the NJPAC concert, Paquito intends to mix the traditional with the contemporary and play the music of Cuban composers Ernesto Lecuona and composer/ bandleader Ernesto Duarte or possibly “Cubanized” Mozart like he used to play with Irakere. CJNG will certainly perform Paquito’s own compositions and those created by members of his ensemble as well as some selections from his new CD, jaZZ-claZZ, a combination of jazz, Latino-American and chamber music styles.

Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

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In the Spotlight Born in Havana, Cuba, Paquito D’Rivera began playing music at the age of four and immediately showed talent. His father, a classical saxophonist, was Paquito’s first teacher. At an early age, Paquito not only began playing both the clarinet and saxophone with the Cuban National Symphony Orchestra, but he co-founded the Orquesta Cubana de Musica Moderna. Later, he co-founded and co-directed the legendary Cuban band Irakere. When Paquito left Cuba for political reasons in the 1980s, he settled in the U.S., where he immediately became a jazz star. Since then, he has performed jazz, classical music and Latin music internationally. He has won nine Grammy awards and was the first artist to win Latin Grammys in both the Latin jazz and classical categories.

“Richard Padron, on electric and acoustic guitars, writes music in a very particular way, using unusual melodic, rhythmic and harmonic approaches. His guitar playing is compelling, powerful and passionate.”



“Charles Flores has the perfect recipe of classical training, traditional Cuban sabor and contemporary jazz. He’s got a very moving, warm and ‘real’ sound on acoustic bass that shows his love and respect for the old Cuban school such as the music of Cachao and other Cuban masters of the past. I love his playing!”

In addition to Paquito on alto saxophone and clarinet, CJNG features the sounds of Dave Samuels on vibes and marimba, Richard Padron on guitar, Pedrito Martinez on percussion and vocals, Alex Brown on piano, Eric Doop on drums, and Charles Flores on contrabass (acoustic upright bass). Paquito is almost as well known for his showmanship and exuberance as for his music. His descriptions of some of his CJNG bandmates reveal a bit of his vibrant personality:

Photo: Andrew Lepley

“Pedrito Martínez is a riot! A singer, dancer and percussionist extraordinaire; his grace, charisma and showmanship are out of sight.”

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Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

“Eric Doop is one of the most reliable drummers around these days. He has a great sense of volume and good taste.”



The other CJNG musicians are equally as accomplished. Pianist Alex Brown was the 2007 winner in the jazz soloist category of Downbeat magazine’s Student Music Awards, and marimba player Dave Samuels of the Caribbean Jazz Project is a Grammy awardwinning vibraphonist.



Afro-Cuban music - Cuban music with marked elements drawn from African music. arranger - a person who writes new music parts for an existing musical piece. bebop - a jazz style, developed in the late 1940s, that features irregularly accented, long phrases and sophisticated harmonies. bossa nova - an urban Brazilian music style, invented in the 1960s, that combines samba and American jazz. bugalú - a 1960s American musical style that blends jazz with American Rhythm & Blues (R&B). charanga - a group composed of piano, percussion, bass, violins, and flute. clave - the basic rhythm of Afro-Cuban music that can be felt as a 2/3 pattern or a 3/2 pattern; (pl.) the Cuban percussive instrument consisting of two wood sticks which are struck together to create this rhythm. congero - a person who plays the conga, a tall, barrel-shaped drum of African derivation that is played with the hands. cubop - an early Latin jazz style, developed by trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie in the mid 1940s, that combines Latin rhythms with bebop. danzon - an early Cuban salon dance and music based, in part, on the contredanse, an 18th-century French dance and music form. ethnic - belonging to a specific cultural group; relating to people of a specific country. hybrid - the result of mixing two different elements to make one new element such as jazz and Latin music combining to form Latin jazz.

jazz - a syncopated style of music that developed in the United States and in which improvisational skills and harmonic structures are explored.

standard - a piece of pop or jazz music that is highly regarded and enduringly popular. swing - a rhythmic sensation of pull and momentum found in jazz. It appears to result partly from the push and pull between the layers of syncopated rhythms and the constant underlying beat.

Latino-American music - a variety of music from all countries in Latin America (and the Carribean). mambo - a Cuban musical style popularized internationally in the 1950s by Perez Prado.

tango – an Argentinean musical style.

percussion - the beating or striking of a musical instrument; the musical instruments that produce tones when struck by the hand or an object. performance practice - the elements that an individual or a group combine to sound a musical style such as combining Cuban rhythmic concepts with American jazz instruments; the act of performing that sound. ragtime - an American musical genre predating jazz. sabor - literally means “flavor” in Spanish. When a person plays with sabor, he/she is playing with the right “flavor.” salsa - a predominantly SpanishCaribbean musical genre, incorporating multiple styles and forms. Developed by Cuban and Puerto Rican musicians in New York in the 1960s and ’70s, salsa is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. samba - a rhythmic dance music from Brazil, derived from African and European roots, which uses a 2/4 time signature. son - the major musical genre of Cuba. Originating in Oriente province in the 19th century, it is the basis of much Latin, jazz and salsa music.

Photo: Andrew Lepley



Music Talk

Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

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Did You Know? Latin jazz is a mixture of both Latin music and jazz in varying proportions. Since the 1940s, the “Latin” part of Latin jazz specifically refers to Afro-Cuban rhythms that are mixed with the harmony, instruments and swing of American jazz to create a hybrid style. This style is a natural mix due to the fluid boundaries between the Caribbean and New Orleans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The early New Orleans jazz pioneer Jelly Roll Morton went so far as to say that all jazz had a “Latin tinge.” In Cuba at this time, musicians and arrangers were also discovering the jazz and ragtime music of New Orleans.

Photo: latinjazzclub.com

An important moment in the development of Latin jazz came in the 1940s in New York City, when the Cuban musician Mario Bauza and American trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie played together in the bands of Cab Calloway and Chick Webb. They performed in clubs such as La Conga, the Palladium, the Roseland Ballroom, and at the Apollo Theater in Harlem, venues that featured both Caribbean and jazz music and bands. Bauza introduced Gillespie to the congero Chano Pozo, who was to become a pivotal figure in Gillespie’s cubop or Latin jazz music.

Tito Puente and Eddie Palmieri

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Also in the 1940s, Gillespie, saxophonist Charlie “Bird” Parker, pianist/composer Thelonious Monk, and others were inventing what would become known as bebop, by introducing a new and more complex sense of melody and harmony into jazz. Gillespie, in turn, brought these elements to his Latin jazz experiments with Chano, who contributed the rhythmic concepts such as the Cuban clave. Their collaboration marked the first genuine synthesis of Afro-Cuban rhythms and American jazz. Together, Gillespie and Chano wrote some of cubop or early Latin jazz’s biggest hits including Manteca, a song that is still considered a standard. Other musicians, bands and arrangers were also developing the Latin jazz sound in New York during the 1940s and 1950s. They included the band Machito and his Afro-Cubans (directed by Mario Bauza), the arranger/bandleader Arturo “Chico” O’Farrill and the Puerto Rican percussionist/arranger/bandleader Tito Puente. The mambo, popularized internationally by the Cuban bandleader Perez Prado in the late 1950s, increased the reach of Latin jazz into American popular music. Desi Arnaz, featured on the TV show I Love Lucy, as well as many other bands and musicians (such as PuertoRican trombonist/composer Juan Tizol, who wrote such classics as Caravan and Perdido) provided light versions of Latin music for a large, national audience also. After the Communist dictator Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba in 1959, relations between Cuba and the United States deteriorated. The free exchange of musicians came to a virtual standstill; New York and Cuban musicians began developing their own styles in relative isolation from each other. During the next decade, New York musicians such as pianist Eddie Palmieri, pianist Chick Corea, percussionist Mongo Santamaria, and Jerry Gonzalez and the Fort Apache Band became the standard bearers for Latin jazz in the United States. The Latin jazz sound also expanded to include other Latin American and American music and rhythms. The Brazilian bossa nova craze led by Brazilian guitarist/composer João Gilberto and anchored by American jazz saxophonist Stan Getz swept the United States. New York-based Cuban

Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

percussionist Mongo Santamaria became influential with his mixed style known as Latin soul. This form combined the “jazz soul” sounds made popular by saxophonist Nat “Cannonball” Adderley with Afro-Cuban percussion and the flute style of Cuban charanga groups. Bugalú,which mixed Afro-Cuban elements, jazz and American R& B, also became popular. Influential musicians such as Willie Colón and Ray Barretto worked in the bugalú and Latin soul styles before moving on to salsa and Latin jazz, respectively, in the 1970s.

Photo: thelatinmusiccruise.com

A Brief History of Latin Jazz

Arturo Sandoval

By the mid 1970s, the group Irakere was revolutionizing Cuban music in Cuba with its own experiments that mixed jazz, classical music and Cuban folkloric elements. Irakere became known around the world for its sound and its direct relationship to Cuba and Cuban musical history. Eventually, Irakere’s co-conductor/ musician, Paquito D’Rivera, and the group’s trumpeter, Arturo Sandoval, both came to the United States to contribute to the ongoing development of Latin jazz in this country.

In the Classroom Before the Performance 1. Ask students to go online and find the instruments, including percussion, used in both Afro-Cuban and jazz music. Make a list of the instruments with pictures. Play at least two examples of music that use the instruments. Introduce and explain the context of the music to the class, focusing on who? what? when? where? why? how? (1.1, 1.3, 1.5)* 2. Have each student pick one of the following musicians and put together a short biography of the artist that includes information about his involvement with jazz and Latin music: Chick Corea, Tito Puente, Perez Prado, Eddie Palmieri, Dizzy Gillespie, Stan Getz, Miles Davis, Mongo Santamaria, Jelly Roll Morton, Carlos Santana, Wayne Shorter, Machito, Mario Bauza, Eddie Gomez, Gonzalo Rubalcaba. Have each student listen to two or three examples of his or her artist’s music and present one of them to the class along with the biography of the artist. (1.1, 1.5)

After the Performance 1. Ask students to identify the instruments used in the performance by Paquito D’Rivera. Do they think the music was or was not an even balance between jazz and Latin music? Ask them to explain and support their answers with examples drawn from the performance. Did they recognize any other styles in the performed music, such as classical, ragtime, Venezuelan, tango, samba, or Afro-Peruvian? (1.1, 1.3, 1.4) 2. Have students attend a local Latin jazz performance and write a report on the experience. Their reports should include answers to who? what? when? where? why? how? Is listening to live music different from listening to recordings at home? Why?

Teaching Science Through Music (6-12) by Sharon J. Sherman, Ed.D.

Music is an art form developed through the medium of sound. When we study the science of music, we study the physics of sound. When we listen to music, we hear variations in pitch, rhythm, dynamics, timbre, tempo, and texture. By bringing together these qualities with both contrast and repetition, we create music that is meaningful and memorable. In the science classroom, students study sound from the early grades right through high school. Young children commonly explore the pitch and volume of sound by using commercially made and homemade instruments. As they progress, children identify the basic forms of energy (light, sound, heat, electrical, and magnetic) and learn that energy is the ability to cause motion or create change. Whenever they hear sound, they know something is moving. As they progress, students learn that sound is produced by vibrating objects and requires a medium through which to travel. When an object vibrates, it pushes against the medium (such as air or water), creating zones of higher pressure and zones of lower pressure that travel outward from the source of sound. These zones are called compression waves. You can show your students what compression waves look like by stretching out a Slinky and tapping a coil at one of its ends, then letting the Slinky go and watching it retract. In the middle grades, students learn that waves carry energy from place to place without transfer of matter. The measurable properties of waves are frequency, velocity, wavelength, amplitude, and period. In high school, students study the nature of sound waves, the properties of sound and the behavior of sound waves. The properties of sound can be demonstrated through music. Have your middle school students explore the sounds produced by different instruments. How does a percussion instrument such as a drum produce sound? Wind and brass instruments use vibrations in pipes to create the sounds. How are different notes created in these instruments? The guitar, the base, the harp, and the piano are stringed instruments. How does the musician vary the amplitude when playing a stringed instrument? High school students should answer each of these questions by applying concepts of physics. Sharon J. Sherman, Ed.D. is Dean of the School of Education and Professor of Teacher Education at Rider University in Lawrenceville, NJ. The Teaching Science Through the Arts content of this guide is made possible through the generous support of Roche.

Following the performance, have the students interview one of the musicians. (Musicians are usually willing to cooperate on a school project). Students should prepare two or three original questions prior to the interview. Students should also ask: How did you become a musician? How did you become interested in jazz and Latin music? Which artists have influenced your musical development? (1.1, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5) *Number(s) indicate NJ Core Curriculum Content Standard(s) supported by the activity.



Additional Before and After activities can be found online at njpac.org. Click on Education, then on Performances. Scroll down to “Download Teacher Guide in Adobe Acrobat PDF format” and select desired guide.

Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

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Delving Deeper Some Recordings by Paquito D’Rivera Funk Tango. Sunnyside Records, 2007. Riberas. Espa, 2005. Brazilian Dreams. MCG Jazz, 2003. Paquito D’Rivera Quintet, Live at the Blue Note. Half Note, 2001. Tropical Night. Chesky, 2000. Portraits of Cuba. Chesky, 1997.

jaZZ-claZZ, Timba Records, 2009. Website paquitodrivera.com worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/ page.basic/genre/content.genre/world_ jazz_801 - Students can read about and hear examples of world jazz music on the “World Music” from National Geographic, an arts integrated resource of Verizon’s Thinkfinity. org.

Films/DVDs Jazz: A Film by Ken Burns. PBS, 2000. Cuba: The Cradle of Latin Jazz. (Directed by Torsten Esse), Cuba, 2002. Additional resources can be found online at njpac.org. Click on Education, then on Performances, then on Curriculum Materials. Scroll down to “Download Teacher Guide in Adobe Acrobat PDF format” and select desired guide.

Acknowledgments as of 8/05/09 NJPAC Arts Education programs are made possible by the generosity of: Bank of America, Allen & Joan Bildner & The Bildner Family Foundation, The Arts Education Endowment Fund in Honor of Raymond G. Chambers, Leon & Toby Cooperman, The Horizon Foundation for New Jersey, Amy C. Liss, McCrane Foundation, The Merck Company Foundation, Albert & Katharine Merck, The Prudential Foundation, The PSEG Foundation, David & Marian Rocker, The Sagner Family Foundation, ScheringPlough, The Star-Ledger/Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation, Surdna Foundation, The Turrell Fund, Verizon, Victoria Foundation, Wachovia, The Wal-Mart Foundation and The Women’s Association of NJPAC. Additional support is provided by: C.R. Bard Foundation, Becton, Dickinson & Company, The Frank and Lydia Bergen Foundation, Bloomberg, Chase, The Citi Foundation, The Geraldine R. Dodge Foundation, Veronica Goldberg Foundation, Meg & Howard Jacobs, Johnson & Johnson, Kraft Foods, The MCJ Amelior Foundation, The New Jersey State Council on the Arts, The George A. Ohl, Jr., Foundation, Pechter Foundation, PNC Foundation on behalf of the PNC Grow Up Great program, The Provident Bank Foundation, E. Franklin Robbins Charitable Trust, Roche, TD Charitable Foundation, Target, The United Way of Essex & West Hudson, Lucy and Eleanor S. Upton Charitable Foundation, Andrew Vagelos, The Edward W. & Stella C. Van Houten Memorial Fund, and The Blanche M. & George L. Watts Mountainside Community Foundation.



For even more arts integration resources, please go to Thinkfinity.org, the Verizon Foundation’s signature digital learning platform, designed to improve educational and literacy achievement.

Arthur Ryan ……………..........................…………………………………………………………………….Chairman Lawrence P. Goldman ………..................…………………………………..President & Chief Executive Officer Sandra Bowie………………….....................……………………………………..Vice President for Arts Education Sanaz Hojreh ……………..................….……………………………..Assistant Vice President for Arts Education Donna Bost-White……......................….……………………………….Director for Arts Education/Special Projects Jeffrey Griglak………......................……………….………………………………..……..Director for Arts Training Verushka Spirito……......................…………………………………………...Associate Director for Performances Ambrose Liu………………........................……………………………………....Associate Director for Residencies Caitlin Evans Jones………….......................………………………………….…Associate Director for Residencies Faye Competello……………........................…………………………………....Associate Director for Arts Training Mary Whithed………....................………..………………………………….....Program Coordinator for Residencies Joanna Gibson.......................................................................................Manager of Wachovia Jazz for Teens Laura Ingoglia…………..............................................…................………......Editor of Teacher’s Resource Guide

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Passport to culture • Paquito D’Rivera

One Center Street Newark, New Jersey 07102 Administration: 973 642-8989 Arts Education Hotline: 973 353-8009 [email protected] NJPAC wishes to thank Paquito D’Rivera for his assistance with this guide.

Writer: Cristian Amigo Editor: Laura Ingoglia Design: Pierre Sardain, 66 Creative, Inc. 66Creative.com NJPAC Guest Reader: Joanna Gibson Curriculum Review Committee: Judith Israel Mary Louise Johnston Amy Tenzer

Copyright © 2009 New Jersey Performing Arts Center All Rights Reserved

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